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Reverse defs

sinus A bone cavity
osteoma A bone tunour
fascicle A bundle of muscle fibres
osteoblast A cell in the bone marrow that produces bone
osteoclast A cell in the bone marrow that reabsorbs bone
periosteum A dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the bone and contains blood vessels, lymphs and nerves
spina bifida A genetic disorder that results in malformation of the spine due to imperfect joining of vertebrae
tuberosity A large, rounded elevation from the surface of a bone
sternocleidomastoid A muscle of the chest arising from the sternum and inner part of the clavicle
condyle A rounded process at the end of a bone that forms an articultation
ribs A series of twelve pair of curved bones attached to the vertebral column which provides protection for internal organs
tubercle A small, rounded elevation from the surface of the bone
tendon A strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
crest A type of bone process that has a large ridge shape
trochanter A very large bony protection
lordosis Abnormal inward curvature of the spine
Scoliosis Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
irregular bones All other bones that cannot be grouped under other headings
kyphosis An exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae
foramen An opening in the bone for passage of blood vessels and nerves
appendage Any body part attached to the main structure
spondylolisthesis Any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebrae from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
casting Application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or other material to a body part to immobilize it during the healing porcess
splinting Application of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabilization, and protection during the healing process
ligament Band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone
pelvis Basin-shaped structure that supports the sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder and other soft organs of the abdominopelvic cavity
osteoporosis Bone pores or cavities resulting from a decrease in bone density
short bones Bones that are as wide as they are long
osteophyte Boney outgrowth that occasionally developes on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord also called bone spur
sternum Breast bone/chest plate
syndactylism Condition of fingers and toes being joined together
talipes equinovarus Congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called clubfoot
appendicular skeleton Consists of bones of the shoulders, hips, upper and lower extremeties
axial skeleton Consists of the bones of the skull, thorax and vertebral column
musculoskeletal system Consists of the bones, joints, and muscles, which provide the body with support, protection and the ability to move
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Decrease pain and suppress inflammation
flexion Decreases the angle of a joint
spondylosis Degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
crepitation Dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indication a fracture of joint destruction
hemarthrosis Effusion of blood into a joint cavity
dorsiflexion Elevates the foot
sequestrectomy Excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
synovectomy Excision of a synovial membrane
bursectomy Excision of bursa (pad like sac or cavity found in conncective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)
metacarpectomy Excision of the bones of the hand
laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebrae
contracture Fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
podiatry Foot treatment
rickets Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called rachitis
long bones Found in the extremeties of the body
bone marrow Found within larger bones; responsible for the production of blood cells
sequestrum Fragmrnt of necrosed bone that has become separated from the surrouonding tissue
arthrodesis Fusion/stabalization or binding of a joint
compact bone Hard, outer layer of bone
myelocele Hernia of the spinal cord
computed tomography Imaging technique that uses an x-ray beam and a computer to make a series of cross-sectional images of a body part, which together make up a three-dimensional view of the area scanned; formerly called computerized axial tomography
synarthrosis Immovable joints
bone grafting Implanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as a replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
exacerbation Increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
extension Increases the angle of a joint
arthritis Inflammation of the joints
claudication Lameness, limping
cruciate ligaments Ligaments that cross each other forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
hypotonia Loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
plantar flexion Lowers the foot (points the toes)
Pelvimetry Measurement of the pelvis
rotation Moves a bone around its own axis
abduction Moves away from the midline
inversion Moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion Moves the sole of the foot outward
fissure Narrow, slit-like opening
scintigraphy Nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
meatus Opening or passage into a bone
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) Painful conditon resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
paraplegia Paralysis of lower spine, lower portion of the truck and both legs
quadriplegia Paralysis of the upper spine and all four extremities
amputation Partial or complete removal of an extremity due to tauma or circulatory disease
phantom limb Perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
phalangeal Pertaining to the bones of the fingers and toes
femorotibial Pertaining to the femur and the tibia
articular Pertaining to the rounded end of a bone
carpal Pertaining to the wrist
substernal Pertaining to under the sternum
articulation Place of union between two or more bones; also called a joint
multiple myeloma Primary malignant tumour that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
bones Principle organs of support and protection in the body
reduction Procedure that restores a bone it its normal position
hematopoiesis Production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
flat bones Provide a broad surface for muscular attachment and protection for internal organs
arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
bone density test (BDT) Radiographic procedures that use low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density
head Prominent, rounded, articulating end of a bone
lumbosacral spinal radiography Radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
myelography Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumours, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks or other lesions
discography Radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures by injecting a contrast medium
open reduction Reduction procedure that treats bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position using surgery
closed reduction Reduction procedure where fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
muscle tissue REfers to all of the contractile tissue of the bodys two main types are voluntary and involuntary
salicylates Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
skeletal muscle relaxants Relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
prosthesis Replacement of a missing part by an artificial subsitute, such as an artificial extremity
bone revision surgery Revision surgery are often required to correct bone infection, misalignments of bones, broken prosthesis and fractures of the bone around the protheses
intervertebral disks Round structure with gelatinous mass in the center that separates the vertebrae
foramen Rounded opening through bone to accommodate blood vessels and nerves
condyle of the humerus Rounded, articulating knob
bone scintigraphy Scintigraphy procedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
arthrography Series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
cancellous Spongy or porous structure, as found at the ends of long bones
torticollis Stiff neck caused by spasmotic contraction of the neck muscle
ankylosis Stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery or abnormal bone fusion
muscles Structures that contract providing movement of the bone
revision surgery Surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn out prosthesis
arthroclasia Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to to provide movement
patellapexy Surgical fixation of the kneecap
Total hip replacement Surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
sprain Tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate or complete
voluntary That which is done with control. Usually a striated muscle such as the biceps
involuntary That which occurs with no discrtionary control. Usually a visceral muscle
fracture The breakage of a bone due to trauma or disease
thorax The chest area
epiphysis The end or extremity of the bone
atlas The first cervical vertebra which supports the skull
sacrum The five sacral vertebrae which are fused into a single bone
lumbar vertebrae The five vertebrae situated in the lower back which carry most of the weight of the torso
latissimus dorsi The large muscle of the back
gluteus maximus The large muscle of the buttocks
ilium The lateral flaring portion of the hip bone; upper of three parts of the hip
ischium The lower part of the hip bone
agonist The muscle(s) that produces the movement
antagonist The muscle(s) that relaxes in order to allow a movement
joints The place(s) at which twoo bones meet
axis The second cervical vertebra which provides rotation of the skull
cervical vertebrae The seven vertebrae which form the skeletal framework of the neck
diaphysis The shaft of long main portion of the bone
coccyx The tail of the vertevral column consisting of four or five fused vertebrae (tailbone)
pubis The third portion of the hipbone that is situated in front of the bladder
thoracic vertebrae The twelve vertebrae which support the chest and serve as a point of articulation for the ribs
vertebrae The twenty-six bones which make up the adult vertebral column
osteoclasis To break a bone for theraputic purposes
strain To exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular
calcium supplements Treat and prevent hypocalcemia
gold salts Treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system
ganglion cyst Tumour of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
pronation Turns the palm down
supination Turns the palm up
electromyography Use of electrical stimulation to record the strength ofo muscle contraction
traction Use of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture and facillitate the healing process
arthroscopy Visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiber optic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiber optic light and a miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
Created by: 541480099