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Renal System O1

Concentration and dilution of urine- Hamra- 2/5/2013

The 'Single effect' ATL is not permeable to water but is permeable to NaCl which allows CCexchange system where the medulla becomes concentrated, but at the same time sets up an osmotic gradient for water to follow if the aquaporins of the collecting duct be opened by ADH
In the thin ascending limb, the single effect is accomplished by Passive movement of NaCl out
In the thick ascending limb, the single effect is accomplished by Both active and passive mechanisms
When flow occurs and fluid leaves the ascending and new fluid enters the descending from the proximal tubule, this is known as Axial shift
Osmotic gradient from outer to inner medulla is increasingly Hyperosmotic
With the maximal concentration of urine in humans, the concentration at the tip of the loop reaches 1200 mOsm
ADH acts from where to where? Initial collecting tubule to inner medullary collecting duct
The osmolality of the cortical interstitium compared to the plasma Equal
As you descend into the medulla, the osmolality becomes increasingly Hyperosmotic
Loop diuretics inhibit the Na/K/2Cl transporter in the thick ascending limb
Loop diuretics prevent the urine from becoming ___ in the thick ascending limb Diluted
Loop diuretics prevent the interstitium from becoming _____ in the thick ascending limb Concentrated
Loop diuretics (increase/decrease) water reabsorption in the descending limb Decrease
Define urine output The sum of the rate at which kidney excretes isosmotic moiety plus the rate at which it excretes free water
If the urine is more dilute than the plasma, the free water clearance is Positive
If the urine is more concentrated than plasma, the free water clearance is Negative
If the urine is isosmotic to plasma, the free water clearance is Zero
In addition to water reabsorption, ADH also stimulates Urea transporters in the inner medulla
The vasa recta utilize both passive and active transport. T/F? False, Solute and water can enter and leave the vasa recta but there is no capacity for active transport
Which establishes the medullary osmotic gradient, CC multiplier or CC exchange? CC multiplier
What is the point of the CC exchanger? The kidney better preserves the osmotic gradient in the medulla
Created by: mcasto