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Medical language 2-4


specifies the body part to which the term refers (O OR I is used in combining forms) ROOTS/COMBINING FORMS
appear at the beginning of a word and tell the how,why,where,when,how much,how many,position,direction, time or statues PREFIXES
always at the end of a word usually indicates a procedure used to diagnose or fix it. SUFFIX
through, complete dia-
painful,abnormal,difficult,labored dys-
above, excessive hyper-
below,incomplete hypo-
after,beyond,change meta-
new neo-
before pro-
cancer(disease characterized by the unregulated abnormal growth of new cells) cancer/0, carcin/o
cause(of disease) eti/o
knowledge gno/0
physician,medicine (also means treatment) iatr/o
smooth lei/o
tumor,mass onc/o
disease path/o
rod-shaped,striated rhabd/o
body somat/o
gland aden/o
cell cyt/o
epithelium epitheli/o
fiber fibr/o
tissue hist/o
nucleus kary/o
fat lip/o
muscle my/o
nerve neur/o
organ organ/o
flesh,connective tissue sarc/o
system system/o
internal organs viscer/o
green chlor/o
color chrom/o
blue cyan/o
red erythr/o
white leuk/o
black melan/o
yellow xanth/o
pertaing to -al,-ic, -ous
cell cyte (note:the combing term for cell is -cyt/o;the suffix for cell is -cyte, ending in an E
substance or agent that produces or causes -gen
producing,origination,causing -genic
one who studies and treats(specialist,physician) -logist
study of -logy
resembling -oid
tumor,swelling -oma
abnormal condition(means increase(+)when used with blood cell word roots) -osis
disease -pathy
condition of formation development,growth -plasia
growth,substance,formation -plasm
malignant tumor -sarcoma
state of -sis
RBC red blood cells (erythrocyte)
WBC white blood cells (leukocyte)
XRT radiation therapy
PX prognosis
CA carcinoma
CHEMO chemical therapy
DX diagnosis
METS metastasis
benign (be-NIN) not malignant,non recurrent
carcinoma in situ (kar-si-NO-ma)(in SI-too) cancer in the early stages before invading surrounding tissue
chemotherapy (chemo) treatment of cancer
front anter/o
tail(downward) caud/o
head(upward) cephal/o
away(from the point of attachment of a body part) dist/o
back dors/o
below infer/o
side later/o
middle medi/o
back,behind poster/o
near(the point of attachment of a body part) proxim/o
above super/o
belly(front) ventr/o
bi- (prefix) two
uni-(prefix) one
ad-(suffix) toward
ior-(suffix) pertaining to
toward the tail (down) cau-dad
toward the head (up) ceph-a-lad
pertaning to a side (lat) Lat-er-al
pertaining to the middle medial (MED)
pertaining to one side (only) unilateral u-ni-LAT-er-al
pertaining to two side bilateral bi-LAT-er-al
pertaining to the middle and to the side mediolateral me-de-o-LAT-er-al
pertaining to away(from point of attachment of a body part) distal Dis-tal
near (point of attachment of a body part) proximal
pertaining to below inferior (INF)
pertaining to above superior (SUP)
pertaining to the tail caudal
pertaining to the head cephalic
pertaining to the front anterior (ANT)
pertaining to the back posterior
pertaining to the back dorsal
pertaining to the belly (front) ventral
pertaining to the front and to the back anteroposterior (AP) an-ter-o-pos-TER-e-or
pertaining to the back and to the front posteroanterior (PA)
semi-sitting position w/ slight elevation of the knees (bed raised 30-90o Fowler position
lying on back with legs raised and feet in stirrups lithotomy position
sitting erect in a chair or sitting upright in bed supported by pillows behind the head and chest (also called orthopneic position) orthopnea position
lying on abdomen facing downward (head maybe turned to one side) prone position
lying down in any position recumbent position
lying on left side with right knee drawn up and with left arm drawn behind, parallel to the back Sims position
lying on back facing upward supine position
lying on back with body tilted so that the head is lower than the feet Trendelenburg position
outer layer of skin epidermis
horny,or cornified,layer composed of protein keratin
color or pigmentation ot the skin melanin
inner layer of skin (also known as TRUE SKIN) dermis
tiny,coiled,tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skins surface and secrete sweat sudoriferous (sweat) glands
secrete sebum (oil) in to the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis sebaceous glands
skin cutane/o,derm/o,dermat/o
sweat hidr/o
horny tissue, hard kerat/o
nail onych/o,ungu/o
sebum(OIL) seb/o
trich/o hair
self aut/o
life bi/o
dust coni/o
hidden crypt/o
other heter/o
fungus myc/o
death(cells,body) nerc/o
thick pachy/o
wrinkles rhytid/o
grape like clusters staphyl/o
twisted chains strept/o
dry xer/o
on,upon,over epi-
within intra-
beside,beyond,around,abnormal para-
through per-
under,below sub-
through,across,beyond trans-
noun suffix, no meaning -a
berry-shaped(form of bacterium) -coccus(pl.-cocci)
excision or surgical removal -ectomy
diseased or abnormal state,condition of -ia
inflammation -itis
softening -malacia
view of,viewing -opsy
eating or swallowing -phagia
sugical repair -plasty
flow, discharge -rrhea
instrument used to cut -tome
around the navel(umbilicus) umbilical region
right or left of umbilical region,near waist lumbar regions
superior to the umbilical region, above stomach epigastric region
right and left of the epigastric region hypochondriac regions
inferior to the umbilical region (under the stomach) hypogastric region
to the right and left of the hypogastric region,near the groin(inguinal region) iliac region
inflammation of the skin Dermatitis
abnormal condition of the skin caused by dust dermatoconiosis
fibrous tumor of the skin dermatofibroma
inflammation of a sweat gland hidradenitis
condition of smooth skin leiodermia
white skin(white patches caused by pigmentation) leukoderma
abnormal condition of a hidden nail(also known as ingrown nail) onychocryptosis
softening of the nails onychomalacia
abnormal condition of a fungus in the nails onychomycosis
eating the nails (nail biting) onychophagia
diseased state around the nail paronychia
discharge of sebum (excessive) seborrhea
abnormal condition of a fungus in the hair trichomycosis
dry skin(mild form of a cutaneous disorder characterized by keratization and noninflammatory scaling xeroderma
scraping of skin by mechanical process or injury abrasion
localized collection pus abscess
inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles acne
precous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from precancerous skin condition from excessive exposure to sunlight(could evolve in to squamous cell carcinoma) actinic keratosis
congenital hereditary condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes albinism
epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis. seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue. common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure basal cell carcinoma(BCC)
an infection of the skin mouth (also known as THRUSH) candidiasis
skin infection composed of a cluster of boil caused by staphylococcal bacteria carbuncle
inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by infection leading to redness,swelling and fever cellulitis
injury with no break in the skin characterized by pain selling and discoloration (bruise) contusion
non-infectious inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness,blisters,scabs,and itching eczema
slit or crack like sore in the skin fissure
painful skin node caused staphylococcal bacteria in a hair follicle (boil) furuncle
death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion(a form of necrosis) gangrene
inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus(small blisters in clusters) herpes
superficial skin infection characterized by pustules and caused by either staphylococci or streptococci impetigo
the invasion of pathogens in body tissue(becomes an infection when pathogen gain access to vascular or lymphatic system and become disseminated throughout the body infection
view of life(removal of living tissue from the body to be view under microscope Biopsy(bx)
surgical repair using ones own skin(skin graft,autograft) dermatoautoplasty
surgical repair using skin from others (allograft) dematoheteroplasty
instruments used to cut skin (in thin slices for skin grafts) dermatome
surgical repair of the skin dermatoplasty
excision of a nail onychectomy
excision of wrinkles(facelift) rhytidectomy
surgical repair of wrinkles rhytidoplasty
destruction of tissue with hot or cold instrument electric current or caustic substance(cautery) cauterization
destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often by liquid nitrogen cryosurgery
removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound debridement
procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material,such as sandpaper dermabrasion
removal by cutting excision
surgical cut made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from lesion,wound,or cavity incision and drainage(I&D)
procedure using an instrment that omits a high powered beam of light used to cut,burn,vaporize,or destroy tissue laser surgery
technique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers Mohs surgery
to stitch edges of a wound surgically suturing
Created by: caustic24