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Digest Rev Defs

Digestive System Reverse Defs

A continuation of the digestive tract responsible for absorption. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum Small intestine
A flap of tissue covering the trachea, which prevents food and liquids from entering the airway Epiglottis
A flexure of the colon which joins the descending colon and the rectum Sigmoid colon
A lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach Ulcer
A muscular canal which extends from the pharynx to the stomach Esophagus
A sac-like structure in the abdominal cabity, responsible for digestion of food Stomach
A test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding Occult blood
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen Ascites
Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it Hernia
Absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach Achlorhydric
Deglutition Act of swallowing
Also called the large intestine; it is divided into four portions and is responsible for absorption and elimination Colon
An artificial opening, in this case, one from the bowel through the abdominal wall Stoma
An organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine Gallbladder
An organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion Pancreas
Anastomosis of the esophagus and jejunum Esophagojejunostomy
Applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult bolld in the feces also called Hemoccult Stool guaiac
Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus Gastroesphageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach Regurgitation
Body mass index of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight Morbid obesity
Cartilaginous tube which extends from the larynx to the bronchial tubes Trachea
Chewing - the first stage of digestion Mastication
Chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possible affecting any protion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis Crohn Disease
Circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body Sphincter
Control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract Antidiarrheals
Control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain Antiemetics
Counteract or neutralize acidity, usually in the stomach Antacids
Creation of an opening of a portion of the colon throught the abdominal wall to its outside surface in orfer to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag Colostomy
Decrease gastrointestinal spasms by slowing peristalsis and motility throughout the GI tract Antispasmodics
Denotes a gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel Exocrine
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatograph (ERCP) Endoscopic procedure that provides a radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify paratial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts and tuumours
Lower GI Endoscopy of the colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum and anal canal
Upper GI Endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum
Hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver
Dyspepsia Epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
Obesity Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
Polypectomy Excision of a polyp
Fecalith Fecal concretion
Cecum First 2-3" of large intestine
Ascending colon First portion of the colon, extending from the cecum to the lower border of the liver
Oral leukoplakia Formation of white spots or patches on the muscous membrane of the tongue, lips or cheek caused primarily by irritation
Flatus Gas in the GI tract, expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
Liver Function Tests (LFT) Group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated iwth the biliary tract
Bariatric Surgery Group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
Computed tomography Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
Dysphagia Inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
Pyloromyotomy Incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
Ulcerative colitis Inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon
Diverticulitis Inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine
Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
Dysentery Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth of the stomach
Gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
Rectum Last portion of the digestive tract which terminates at the anus
Ileum Lower division of the small intestine
Bolus Mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
Serum bilirubin Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
Halitosis Offensive, or "bad" breath
Proctologist One who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum and anus
Bilirubin Orange-coloured or yellowish pigment in the bile
Hepatitis panel Panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus- HAV, HBV, HCV -causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
Melena Passage of dark-coloured, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
Steatorrhea Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
Pharynx Passageway for air from the nose to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus
Anorectal Pertaining to both the anus and the rectum
Celiac Pertaining to the abdomen
Buccal Pertaining to the cheek
Lingual Pertaining to the tongue
Cachexia Physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
Sialolithiasis Presence of a stone in the salivary gland
Cholelithiasis Presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
Lithotripsy Procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic sound waves
Nasogastric intubation Procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food or gastric secretions; to instill medicaton, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
Eructation Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound: also called belching
Peristalsis Progressive wave-like motion which causes the contents of the digestive tract to be forced onward
Peristalsis Progressive wave-like movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
Gastrointestinal system Provides the body with nutrients, electrolytes and water by ingestion, digestion, elimination and absorption
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography PTCP Radiographic examination of bile duct structures
Barium swallow Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate; also called esophogram and upper GI series
Barium enema Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate into the rectum; also called lower GI series
Cholecystography Radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
Liver scan Radiographic visualization of the liver after injection of a radioactive substance
Sialography Radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
Choledocholithotomy Removal of a gallstone through an incision of the bile duct
Biopsy (bx) Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
Borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
Cirrhosis Scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
Jejunum Second division of the small intestine
Transverse colon Second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen toward the spleen
Obstipation Severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
Colic Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially the colon, accompanied by pain
Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass (RGB) Stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch. Next, the jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration.
Pyloric stenosis Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
Ileorectal Surgical connection of theileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
Intestinal Surgical connection of two portions of the intestines;; also called enteroenterostomy
Enterostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall
Anastomosis Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
Jejunorrhaphy Surgical repair of the jejunum
Cheiloplasty Surgical repair of the lip
Proctoplasty Surgical repair or reconstruction of the rectum or colon
Aerophagia Swallowing air
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
Malabsorption Symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lympph
Ultrasonography Test that uses high-frequency sound waves to analyze the reflected echoes from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor; also called ultrasound, onography, echo and echogram
Stool Culture Test to identify microorganisms pr parasites present in feces
Oropharynx The central part of the throat between the soft palate and epiglottis
Anal sphincter The constricting muscle at the anus which relaxes to allow passage of stool
Enema The introduction of liquid into the rectum for cleansing the bowel and for stimulating evacuation of the bowels
Liver The largest glandular organ whose functions include: producing bile, removing glucose from the blood and storing vitamins
Laryngopharynx The lower portion of the pharynx which divides into the trachea and esophagus
Anus The outlet of the rectum
Absorption The passage of simple nutrients into the blood stream
Diarrhea The passage of unformed watery bowel movements
Nasopharynx The portion of the throat above the soft palate and behind the nose
Digestion The process by which food is broken down, mechanically and chemically in the digestive tract and converted into an absorbable form that can be used by the body
Descending colon Third continuatin of the colon which joins and forms the sigmoid colon
Ingest To eat
Elimination To remove, get rid of, exclude; also to pass urine from the bladder or stool from the bowel
Laxatives Treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowel to induce defacation
Cholangioma Tumour of the bile duct or vessel
Abdominal Ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters and bladder
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch. A band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
Duodenum Uppermost division of the small intestine; receives secretions to aid in digestion
Biopsy Use of a large-bore needle to remove a core of liver tissue for histological examination
Extracorporeal Shockwave Use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts
Endoscopy Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
Hematemesis Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
Ileostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall
Created by: 541480099