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IU MED TERM Chap 7 Terms & Def

Chap 7 TermsChap 7 Definitions
cytoplasm all material within the cell membrane other than the nucleus
carbon dioxide (CO2) tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process
granuloma any type of nodular, inflammatory lesion; usually small; may be granular, firm, and persistent and may contain compacity grouped mononuclear phagocytes
mucosa moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment; also called mucous membrane
mucus viscous, slippery secretion of mucous membranes that acts as a lubricant and coats and protects many epithelial surfaces, especially the respiratory and gential tracts
naris nostril; opening to the nasal cavity
oxygen (O2) tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiration
pH symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
respiratory failure inability of the cardiac and pulmonary systems to maintain an adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs
septum wall dividing two cavities; for example, the nasal septum that seperates the nostrils
sputum secretions produced in the lungs and the bronchi that are expelled by coughing and may contain such pathological elements as cellular debris, mucus, blood, pus, caseous material, and microorganisms
status asthmaticus severe, prolonged asthma attack that does not respond to repeated doses of bronchodilators and may lead to respiratory failure and death
surfactant lipoprotein that decreases the surface tension of alveoli and contributes to their elasticity, thereby reducing the work of breathing
acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids, commonly associated with pulmonary insufficiency and the subsequent retention of carbon dioxide
anosmia absence of or decrease in the sense of smell
apnea temporary loss of breathing
sleep apnea one of several disorders in which breathing during sleep stops for more than 10 seconds and usually more than 20 times/hour, causing measurable blood deoxygenation
asphyxia condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
atelectasis collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung
Cheyne-Stokes respiration repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all
compliance ease with which lung tissue can be stretched
coryza head cold, upper respiratory infection (URI)
croup common chilhood condition involing inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passagews, and sometimes, lungs characterized by resonant, barking cough; suffocative and difficult breathing; laryngeal spasm; and, sometimes, the formation of a membrane
deviated nasal septum displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils
epiglottitis severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age
epistaxis nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
finger clubbing enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in the blood; also called anoxemia
hypoxia absence or deficiency of oxygen in the tissues; also called anoxia
pertussis acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough
pleurisy inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis
pneumoconiosis generally occupational disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron (siderosis), and asbestos (asbestosis)
pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure
pulmonary embolus mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles, and bacteria) in the pulmonary arteries or its branches
rale abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called crackle
rhonchus adventitious breath sound that resembles snoring, commonly suggesting secretions in the larger airways
stridor high-pitched, harsh adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal and health infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death
wheeze whistling or sighing sound on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
Mantoux test intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
oximetry noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry
polysomnography test of sleep cycles & stages using cont. recordings of brain waves(EEGs), electrical activ. of muscles, eye move.(electro-oculogram), respiratory rate, blood press., blood oxy. saturation, heart rhy. & occ. direct observ. recording during sleep
pulmonary function studies multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane
spirometry measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope (flexible fiberoptic or rigid) inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
laryngoscopy visual examination of the inside of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
mediastinoscopy visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes
arterial blood gases (ABGs) test that measures the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2), carbon dioxide (Paco2), pH (acidity or alkalinity), and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample
sputum culture microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonia
sweat test measurement of the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in sweat
throat culture test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci
radiography producing images using an x-ray that is passed through the body or area and captured on film
chest radiography images of the chest taken from anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), or lateral projection, or a combination of these projections
scan term used to describe a computed image by modality (such as CT scan, MRI scan, and nuclear scan) or structure (such as thyroid scan and bone scan)
thoracic (CT) scan a cross-sectional view of the chest taken with or without an injected contrast medium to visualize injuries, tumors, fluid in the lungs, or other pathologies
lung scan nuclear scanning procedure commonly used to diagnose blood clots and pulmonary emboli
aerosol therapy inhalation of microdrops of medication directly into the respiratory system via a nebulizer (liquid), metered-dose inhaler (gas), or dry-powder inhaler (solid)
lavage irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel, or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid
antral lavage irrigation of the paranasal sinuses usually performed to remove mucopurulent material in an immunosuppressed patient or one with known sinusitis that has failed medical management
postural drainage positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
rhinoplasty reconstructive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes
pleurectomy excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal
pneumectomy excision of a lung or lobe (lobectomy) of the lung
septoplasty surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
thoracentesis surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
Created by: khandoggy