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HDIC chapter 3

Immunologic Diseases and conditions

anticholinesterase any enzyme that counteracts the action of the choline esters
autoimmune an immune response that resulting in the presence of self antigens or autoantigens on the surface of certain body cells; may result in allergy or autoimmune disease
candidiasis a fungal infection of any of the Candida (yeast) species. Severe forms (Candidemia) are often found in immunocomprised Persons e.g. aids, transplant, AIDS, emergency surgery patients.
collagen protein used to connect and support other body tissues.
hematopoetic pertaining to the production and development of blood cells, or a substance that stimulates their production
hypogammaglobulinemia a below normal concentration of gamma globulin in the blood, associated with a decreased resistance to infection
immunocompetent an immune system which has the ability to (appropriately) defend the body against disease
immunodeficiency deficiency of the immune system to react with appropriate cellular immunity response; often the result of loss immunoglobulins or aberrance of B- or T-cell lymphocytes
immunoelectrophoresis technique used to separate and allow identification of complex proteins
immunogen antigen: substance capable of stimulating an immune response
immunoglobulin a protein that can act as an antibody
immunosuppressive having the property of suppressing the body's immune response to antigens
keratoconjunctivitis dryness of the conjunctiva resulting from a decrease in lacrimal function
lymph a mostly clear, colorless, transparent, alkaline fluid found within the lymphatic vessels; formed in tissues throughout the body
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes
lymphocyte one of two types (B cells and T cells) of leukocytes (white blood cells) found in blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissue
macrophage a monocyte (white blood cell ) which ingests foreign material. They are key in the immune response to foreign bodies (usually found in the liver, spleen, and connective tissues of the body.
phagocytes A cell that surrounds and digests particles such as, bacteria, protozoa and debris
phagocystosis the process of by which cells surround and digest certain particles
pneumocystis pneumonia opportunistic form of pneumonia often found in patients with weakened immune systems. It's Caused by fungus.
SCID - Severe Combined Immunodeficiency a disease that is caused a severe defect in T cell production and function, defects in B cells (some genetic forms also affect NK cell production).
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia an autoimmune condition in which red blood cells (RBCS) are destroyed by antibodies.
signs and symptoms of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia fatigue, weakness, chills fever, dispnea, itching, jaundice, pale skin and bruises easily. sometimes, hypotension
Patient screening for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia patients with full spectrum of symptoms should be seen the same day, those with mild or fewer, less urgency
etiology of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia b cell produced antibodies do not identify RBCs as self &result in in AGGLUTINATION of RBCs and attack and destruction of red corpuscles.
two types of hemolytic anemia are warm and cold antibody (agglutinin) anemia
what is warm antibody anemia associated with an excess of IgG antibodies that react with protein antigens on the RBC surface at body temp.
what is cold antibody anemia results from fixation of complement proteins on IgM that occurs at colder temps ( about 30°), often seen with infectious mononucleosis or mycoplasma pneumonia.
idiopathic of unknown cause
diagnosis of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia direct Combs' test
treatment of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia address any underlying diseases or conditions. warm: corticosteroids,& cytotoxic drugs reduce antibody production; splenectomy; IV immune globulin. Cold: avoid cold and maybe plasmapheresis
prognosis for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia usually abated after infection resolves (if causing factor). From other causes, often chronic and poorly responsive. warm type is usually self limiting in children, disappearing within 1-3 months
prevention for Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia no known preventions
systemic Lupus Erythematosus chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by unusual autoantibodies in the blood target tissues of the body
signs and symptoms of Lupus inflammation and damage to connective tissue anywhere in the body. Most often skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs. Rashes, fatigue, joint pain and malaise, fever, joint deformaties, and weight loss
Raynaud's Phenomenon a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas.
patient screen for Lupus onset of unexplained clusters of described symptoms requires medical evaluation, followed by referral to a rheumatologist
Etiology of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus thought to be autoimmune with predisposing genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Possibly preceded by stress, immunization reactions, pregnancy or over exposure to UVA light
Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythrmatosus can be made if any four of a particular group of conditions and diseases are present either at once or sequentially. Diagnostic tests: CBC, ESR, antinuclear antibody determination, and anti-DNA test.
Sjögren's disease Autoimmune disease which causes inflammation in various glands of the body
treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus mild: aspirin, prednisone, antimalarial severe: steroids, immunosuppressants
prognosis for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus treatment options are improving, depends on internal organ development. increased risk of cancers such as Leukemia, lymphoma, breast
prevention of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (outbreaks) diligence in adhering to medication regiments. flare-ups can can be prevented by not missing doses and avoiding exposure to sunlight
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Chronic inflammatory systemic disease that affects the joints.
signs and symptoms of RA Edema, pain, tenderness, erythema, and warmth in one or more joints usually fingers, wrists, knees, ankles, and toes. Bursitis, anemia,
patient screening for RA initial diagnostic evaluation, possibly followed by referral to rheumatologist.
Etiology of RA Unknown causes possibly autoimmune with genetic predispositions or possibly virally triggered.
Diagnosing RA first evaluate for other causes of polyarthritis, review symptoms and patients family history, physical exam, imaging studies, blood and other labs tests. occasionally only after observation of progression for weeks or months
treatment of RA combination of medication (aspirin, steroids, NSAIDs,DMARDs), rest, special exercise, and joint protection
prognosis for RA varies with adequacy of treatment. early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential. 25% of patients already have joint destruction at the first visit to rheumatologist.
prevention of RA agressive early medical intervention is mandatory, generally meaning early use of DMARDs, w or w/o biologic meds
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) Rheumatoid Arthritis that affects children less than 16 years of age, and usually begins between ages 2-5
systemic JRA with high fevers and rash, is also known as: Still's disease
three types of JRA Pauciarticular ( only a few joints affected) polyarticular ( many joints affected) systemic onset JRA ( Still's disease)
signs and symptoms of JRA usually involves lg. joints. swelling, rash, temp fluctuations' appetite/weight loss
patient screening for JRA patients with fever, rash and /or swelling and stiffness in the joints, should be seen as soon as possible
Etiology of JRA unknown cause. thought to be autoimmune disorder w/genetic tendencies, particularly those with Spondylitis
Diagnosis of JRA based on history and physical exam, blood test for rheumatoid factor
treatment of JRA similar to adult RA.exercise, diet, braces/splints
prognosis of JRA with proper therapy, children with all forms of arthritis will usually improve over time. most will lead normal lives
prevention of JRA aggressive early treatment helps prevent joint damage, loss of function and disability. usually with DMARDs, physical therapy
MS Multiple Sclerosis an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system attacks myelin sheath,causing scarring (sclerosis) which debilitates the nerves
signs and symptoms of MS sclerosed tissue affects: limb numbness/weakness, optic neuritis vision loss, diplopia, unsteady gait, vertigo, urinary issues, facial pain/numbness, (dysphagia) speech loss, hearing loss, impotence, fatigue, emotional issues e.g. depression etc...
patient screening for MS patient w/ undiagnosed or possible MS may have variable or sporadic symptoms. Schedule an appointment for clinical evaluation
Etiology of MS Unknown, possible immune system involved, genetic traits, some theories include viral triggers.
types of MS relapsing-remitting-relapeses primary progression w/o remission secondary progressive, begins as relapsing turns progressive progressing-relapsing-prgressive
diagnosis of MS diagnosis is difficult, early exams may seam normal. Often made by process of elimination. Usually after 2 or more CNS dysfunction episodes. MRI used to support diagnosis
treatment of MS Acute: corticosteroids Relapsing/remitting: meds, immuno-suppressive therapy, biologics (biologic response modifiers) or symptomatically i.e. muscle relaxants etc...
biologics genetically engineered proteins derived from human genes, designed to inhibit specific components of the immune system.
prognosis no known cure. average duration is 30 years or longer
Created by: texastigger