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Nissing Micro Ch3

Micro Ch3 Cell Structure and Function (ORGANELLES)

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These microbes lack a nucleus Prokaryotes
Which is larger, the prokaryote or eukaryote? Eukaryote (prokaryote = little guy, ~1.0micrometer)
These microbes are prokaryotic bacteria and archaea
These microbes have a nucleus Eukaryotes
Which microbe lacks internal membrane-bound (phospholipid enclosed) organelles? Prokaryotes
These microbes are eukaryotic Algae, protozoa, fungi
Word means "sugar cup" and refers to the gelatinous, sticky substance composed of polysaccharides and/or polypeptides that make up biofilms surrounding bacteria and archaea Glycocalyces
What are the 2 types of glycocalyces that bacteria cells have? Capsule, firmly attached to cell surface and may prevent recognition, Slime Layer, water soluble and allows adherence to surfaces
Long protein structure responsible for propulsion of some bacterial cells including H. pylori. Flagella
Portion of the flagella that is made of proteins called flagellin Filament (tail part)
Portion of the flagella that connects the filament to the cell Hook
Portion of the flagella that anchors it to the cell wall Basal body
Term meaning single (polar) flagellum extending from one end of cell monotrichous
means single (polar) flagellum extending from each end of cell Amphitrichous
Means multiple flagella (tufts) extending from one or both ends of cell Lophotrichous
multiple flagella randomly distributed over entire surface of cell Peritrichous
The clockwise motion of peritrichous bacteria causes what kind of motion "Tumble"
The counteRclockwise motion of peritrichous bacteria causes what motion? "Run" (think counteRclockwise R=Run)
A toxic chemotaxi will repel motile bacteria. Name some attractants. nutrients, phototaxi, aerotaxi, magnetotaxis, thermotaxis.
Component of axial filament that rotates around a cell causing corkscrew motion as in spirochete Endoflagella
Bacteria have these, shorter and thinner than flagella but otherwise similar in structure, these structures help a bacteria adhere, move, or conjugate Pili
When a bacteria's rodlike protein extensions are sticky, bristlelike for adherence, they're called... fimbriae (Fim-bree-E)
An F pilis has the mechanism of... conjugation and DNA transfer (minute genetic transfer)
Bacterial cell structure responsible for structure, shape, protection from osmotic forces. Cell Wall
What are bacterial cell walls made up of? peptidoglycan
What are the two basic types of bacterial cell wall? Gram+ and Gram-
What is peptidoglycan made up of? Alternating series of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid joined by tetrapeptide (4 amino acids) to form glycan chain
Which type of bacterial cell walls have the unique polyalcohol called teichoic acid? Gram Positive
What color do Gram positive cells stain? Purple
Acid-fast bacteria may be up to 60% of this substance which helps protect it mycolic acid
What color do Gram negative cells stain? Pink
Which type of cell wall is thick made up of multiple layers of peptidoglycan? Gram Positive
Gram negative bacteria have a bilayer membrane outside the peptidoglycan membrane. What's in there? Periplasm includes peptidoglycan, outermembrane contains protein and phospholipids tail-to-tail with lipopolysaccharides
The LPS layer of the membrane allows small molecules or ions to pass through channels called porins
LPS has one side that is directed away from the membrane, and is used to identify certain species or strains like E.coli O-specific polysaccharide side chain
LPS has a portion that anchors into the lipid bilayer and plays a role in recognition of infection Lipid A
This effects peptidoglycan by preventing cross-linking of glycan chains and is more effective in Gram+ bacterium Penicillin
This effects peptidoglycan by breaking NAG and NAM links in the cell wall Lysozyme
Has no cell wall, has a plasma membrane, causes mild pneumonia, strong membrane due to sterols. Mycoplasma
Why can a steroid go through a cell membrane? it's very nonpolar, like the inside of the phospholipid bilayer
What is a function of the cytoplasmic membrane of photosynthetic bacteria? Harvest light
Because bacteria don't have mitochondria or chloroplasts, where is energy stored? in the cytoplasmic membrane
Name 3 passive processes of transport across a cytoplasmic membrane Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, osmosis
passive transport through a nonspecific channel protein or a permease specific for one chemical is called... facilitated diffusion
Passive transport of particles through the phospholipid bilayer Diffusion
Passive transport of water through a specific channel protein or the phospholipid bilayer Osmosis
Liquid portion of cytoplasm Cytosol
deposits of chemicals that are not currently being used inclusion
unique structures produced by some bacteria that are a defense strategy against unfavorable conditions endospores
In the formation of an endospore, what happens to the mother (vegetative) cell's DNA? it breaks down
Do bacteria have membrane bound organelles? NO
Where is protein synthesized in bacteria? Ribosomes (RNA's and proteins)
In bacteria or archaea, what are the names of the small and large subunits called? What about when the subunits combine to transport mRNA? Small=30s, large=50s, combined=70s
In eukaryotes, what are the names of the small and large subunits called? What about when the subunits combine to transport mRNA? Small=40s, large=60s, combined=80s
What is the role of cytoskeleton in bacteria? forming basic shape of cell
Biofilms are slimy masses of microbes adhering to substrate by means of... Glycocalyces and fimbriae
Archaea have bristlelike and has adhesions for the purpose of attachment, it is called a ... fimbriae or Hami (grappling hooks)
What are archaea cell walls made up of? specialized polysaccharides and proteins, NOT peptidoglycan
List the 4 requirements of living things Growth, Reproduction, Responsiveness, Metabolism
these two organelles play a role in mitosis and cytokinesis, formation of flagella and cilia Centrioles (which are in the centrosome)
Eukaryotic organelle that has two phospholipid bilayer membranes and is much like a bacteria in that it has 70s ribosomes, single strand of circular DNA Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Theory that eukaryotes formed from a union of a small aerobic prokaryote and a larger anaerobic prokaryote, and the little one became an organelle in the big one Endosymbiotic theory
Name the scientist who dismissed the idea that organic chemicals are formed only by living things by synthesizing urea Friedrich Wohler 1828
Name the four processes possessed by all living things Growth, Reproduction, Responsiveness, Metabolism
True or false: an organism will exhibit all life processes at all times False, for example an organism isn't necessarily reproducing at all times
Life process described as increasing in size growth
Life process described as increasing in number reproduction
Life process described as the ability to change internal and/or internal properties in reaction to changing conditions around or within them Responsiveness
Life process described as the ability to take in nutrients and use them in controlled chemical reactions to provide the energy needed for the other life processes. Metabolism
Type of responsiveness that makes some organisms able to move toward or away from environmental stimuli taxis
Storage of metabolic energy unique to living things ATP triphosphate bonds
Name the two biologists who developed that theory that all living things are composed of cells Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden ~1840
There are two domains of Prokaryotic organisms. What are they? Archaea and Bacteria
Capsules and slime layers protect cells from desiccation, which means drying
What powers the rotation of bacterial flagella? the flow of hydrogen or sodium ions near in the cytoplasmic membrane near the basal body
term for spherical cells cocci
rod shaped cells bacilli
Chain of cells strep
cluster of cells staph
cuboid group of cells sarcinae
Bacterial cell walls are composed of... Peptidoglycan, a complex polysaccharide composed of regularly alternating sugar molecules N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid
The NAG and NAM chains are attached by crossbridges of 4 amino acids, called... tetrapeptides, the "peptido" portion of peptidoglycan (remember peptide bond is how aminos link to make proteins)
Name 2 reasons Gram-positive cells dye purple The thick cell wall retains violet dye, and Teichoic acids negatively charge the membrane allowing the dye to pass through the wall
Which has a thicker layer of peptidoglycan? Gram positive (Gram negative have a thin layer of peptidoglycan)
The inner leaflet of the outer membrane of gram-negative cells is phospholipids and proteins, the outer leaflet is... lipopolysacchrides
The integral proteins that form chanels through the outer membrane of G- cells are called... porins
It was once believed that Lipid A was inside G- cells. When the cells die they can cause fever, vasodilation, shock, blood clotting. It's called an... endotoxin
Why is penicillin ineffectual against many G- pathogens? The outer membrane blocks it
From inside to outside, name the 3 main layers of the G- cell. Cytoplasmic membrane (made up of phospholipid bilayer), periplasmic space (with internal peptidoglycan layer), outer membrane of cell wall (Phospholipids/LPS).
A phospholipid molecule is bipolar. Which end is hydrophilic, or attracted to water? The head. The tails are hydrophobic
Movement across the cytoplasmic membrane not requiring energy passive
The difference in concentration of a chemical on two sides of a membrane concentration gradient
The voltage across a membrane electrical membrane
Describe the electrical gradient of a cell interior is negative due to negative proteins, exterior is positive due to sodium cations, therefore cations are attracted
What provides the energy required for diffusion, facilitated diffusion, or osmosis? Electrochemical gradient
Net movement of a chemical DOWN its concentration gradient (high>low) requiring no energy Diffusion
Name 2 things that can freely diffuse through the cytoplasmic membrane Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, alcohol, fatty acid
The use of proteins as channels or carriers to allow molecules to diffuse down (high>low) their concentration gradients. Facilitated diffusion
For what types of molecules does diffusion have to be facilitated? Large or electrically charged
Facilitated diffusion that are specific, carrying only certain substrates with specific binding site uses what type of channel proteins? permeases
Refers to a situation in which neither side of a selectively permeable membrane experiences a net gain or loss of water isotonic
In unequal concentrations of solution, the one with the higher concentration of solute hypERtonic
In unequal concentrations of solution, the one with the lower concentration of solute hypOtonic
In unequal concentrations of solution, the one with the lower solution of water hypERtonic - lower water means higher solute
If a cell is placed in a hypERtonic solution, what will happen to it? Crenation - the solution is too salty, so all the water moves out, wrinkling the cell
If a cell is placed in a hypOtonic solution, what will happen to it? Swell or burst - because the solution isn't salty, it will move into the cell, where there is salt, and it will get too full
Use of permease proteins as gated channels or ports that are controlled by opening or closing by expending ATP when a particular substance is needed Active transport
A permease that transports one substance at a time uniport
A permease that simultaneously transports two chemicals in opposite directions at the same time antiports
A permease that moves two substances together in the same direction by means of a single carrier protein symports
A symport and an antiport working together using one chemical's electrochemical gradient to provide energy to transport a second chemical coupled transport (you use a couple of ports)
An active process in some bacteria where the substance being transported is chemically changed during transportation Group translocation
A very efficient method of moving substances into a cell in which an altered substance is trapped inside the cell Group translocation
Gelatinous material inside the cell Cytoplasm
Composition of cytoplasm cytosol, inclusions, ribosomes, often a cytoskeleton, sometimes an endospore
Liquid portion of cytoplasm cytosol
region of a prokaryotic cell containing DNA nucleoid (not phospholipid-membrane bound)
reserve deposits of lipids, phosphate, sulfur, sometimes surrounded in polypeptide membrane inclusion
a lipid that causes inclusion granules that can be used as biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
inclusion in many aquatic cyanobacteria that allows it to buoy to the surface gas vesicles
Name the 2 bacteria noted for their ability to produce endospores Bacillus and Clostridium
Process of endospore formation sporulation
Describe prokaryotic ribosomes 70s made up of 30s with polypeptides and 1rRNA and 50s with polypeptides and 2rRNA
internal network of fibers that play a role in forming the basic shape of bacteria Cytoskeleton
Do archaea with capsules or biofilms cause disease? No, no archaeon has been shown conclusively to be pathogenic
structures that are similar but don't come from a common ancestor analogous structures (archaea and bacteria have analogous flagella)
Eukaryotic membrane assemblages of lipids and proteins that remain together and do not flow independently amidst other membrane components membrane rafts
physical manipulation of cytoplasmic membrane around cytoskeleton to form a pseudopod around a substance, then bringing it into the cell. Done by eukaryotes. Endocytosis
Endocytosis of a solid phagocytosis
Endocytosis of a liquid pinocytosis
Nutrients are enclosed in this after endocytosis food vesicles
streaming of cytoplasm into a pseudopod for locomotion of eukaryotes amoeboid action
The opposite of endocytosis, exporting substances from a cell exocytosis
shorter hairlike structures on eukaryotes composed of 9+2 pairs of microtubles in shaft and 9+0 triplets in basal bodies Cilia (the numbers are the same for eukaryotic flagella)
Describe eukaryotic ribosomes 80s, made up of 60s and 40s
Eukaryotic cell internal network of fibers and tubules anchoring organelles with a role in cytoplasmic streaming and movement of organelles Cytoskeleton
Animal and some fungal cells contain these organelles which function in mitosis, cytokinesis, and formation of flagella and cilia Centrioles in a Centrosome
The "control center" of the eukaryotic cell nucleus
Semiliquid matrix of the nucleus Nucleoplasm
specialized region(s) where RNA is synthesized Nucleoli (Nucleolus)
Threadlike mass of DNA associated with histones that condense to become chromosomes Chromatin
Double membrane surrounding the nucleus composed of two phospholipid bilayers nuclear envelope
Proteins produced by ribosomes on this membranous organelle are inserted into the lumen for transport Rough endoplasmic reticulum
This membranous organelle plays a role in lipid synthesis and transport Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
This organelle receives, processes, and packages large molecules for export from the cell Golgi body
membranous sacs that function to store and transfer chemicles within eukaryotic cells Vesicles and vacuoles
These organelles in animal cells contain catabolic enzymes that damage the cell if they are released from their packaging into the cytosol Lysosomes
These vesicles derived from the ER contain oxidase and catalase, enzymes that degrade poisonous metabolic waste Peroxisomes
Eukaryotic organelle with internal cristae to increase surface area, produces ATP, has its own DNA and 70s ribosomes Mitochondria
Eukaryotic organelle with internal thylakoids to increase surface area, harvests light, have their own DNA and 70s ribosomes Chloroplasts
Alternate to chloroplasts in some photosynthetic prokaryotes photosynthetic lamellae
Who popularized the endosymbiotic theory to describe the semiautonomous nature of chloroplasts and mitochondria? Lynn Margulis
Created by: jenissing