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Maya, Aztec, Inca

Mayans, Aztecs, Incas

Both the plant and kernel of corn. Maize
A system of writing using signs and symbols, used by the Maya and other cultures. Hieroglyphics
A ruined ancient Mayan city in western Honduras. Copan
The largest Mayan city in the northern part of Guatemala. Tikal
The area in Mexico where Lake Texcoco Tenochtitlan, and modern Mexico City are located. Valley of Mexico
Aztec metropolis covering more than five square miles near modern Mexico City; originally located on two small islands in Lake Texcoco, it gradually grew; on of two Aztec capitals, its name means “stone rising in water” Tenochtitlan
A pipe or channel used to carry water from a distant source to dry areas. Aqueduct
A knotted string used by Incan government officials and traders for record keeping. Quipu
1438 he was the ruler of the Incas. Conquered the people who lived near the Pacific Ocean. He demanded loyalty from the people he conquered. If they were disloyal, they were forced off his land. His son was Topa Inca. Pachacuti
Pachacuti’s son. Expanded the Incan Empire. It eventually stretched 2,500 miles from what is now Ecuador south along the Pacific coast through Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. The people ruled by Incas lived in small villages. Topa Inca
A city in Peru; capital of the Incan empire. Located in the Andes. Cuzco
The 1494 treaty setting up the Line of Demarcation, giving Spain the right to settle and trade west of the line, and Portugal the same right east of the line. Treaty of Tordesillas
An agreement in writing made between two or more countries. Treaty
An imaginary line from the North Pole to the South Pole (at about 50 degrees Longitude) set forth in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas; Spain had the right to settle and trade west of the line and Portugal had the right to settle and trade east of the line. Line of Demarcation
16th century conquerors working for the Spanish government who were in charge of gaining land and wealth in the Americas. Were sponsored to explore -- gave a fifth of their treasures to Spain. Conquistador
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry. Mestizo
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry. Hacienda
The right to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans; the right was granted to American settlers by the Spanish government. Encomienda
A Spanish Soldier who conquered the Aztecs. Went to Mexico in 1519 - met Malinche who was a daughter of an Aztec leader Moctezuma. Worked with cities around the Aztec empire to take down Moctezuma. Eventually defeated Aztecs. Hernan Cortes
The daughter of an Aztec leader. Was Cortes' translator. She quickly learned Spanish and became Cortes’s main translator. She kept an eye out for Aztec spies. Without her, Cortes could not have conquered the Aztecs. Malinche
He thought he could reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. Queen Isabella of Spain finally agreed to sponsor his voyage. He set sail in Aug. 1492. 10 weeks later he saw land. He had thought he reached the E. Indies. Christopher Columbus
The Aztec ruler when Cortes landed in 1519. Sent out spies on Cortes. He welcomed Cortes & his soldiers. He agreed to surrender to Spain. The Aztecs began to fight against the Spanish. He died during battle. 1521 the Aztecs finally surrendered. Moctezuma
Spanish conquistador. He planned to attack the Incas. In 1531 he captured and killed the Incan emperor. He also killed many other Incan leaders. by 1535, he had conquered most of the Incan empire, including the capital, Cuzco. Francisco Pizzaro
A political movement in which people overthrow the existing government and set up another. Revolution
A person born of Spanish parents born outside of Spain; often among the best-educated and wealthiest people in the Spanish colonies. Criollo
A military officer who rules strictly. Caudillo
Led the way for Mexico's self-government. Criollo in the town of Dolores. Planned a revolution -- called by ringing bells (Cry of Dolores). Army was mestizos & N. Americans. Wanted revenge on Spain. Tried to retreat - he was captured & executed. Miguel Hidalgo
High ranking officer in the Spanish army. Trusted him more than Hidalgo. They could trust him to protect their interests. They decided to support the rebellion. In 1821, He declared Mexico independent. Agustin de Iturbide
Great revolutionary leader. He won against P. Ferdinand for Spanish America. “The Liberator” He drove the remaining Spanish forces out of South America altogether in 1825, only Cuba, Puerto rico were still ruled by Spain. Simon Bolivar
Served in the Spanish Army. Helped Argentina fight for freedom. 1817 Soldiers went through Andes Mtns in Chile. Took Spain by surprise. defeated Spain. Attacked Peru by sea. Spain was not prepared. In 1821 he, seized Lima, the capital of Peru. Jose de San Martin
The king returned to Portugal in 1821. He left his son, _____ to rule the colony. He used more power than the king expected. He declared Brazil independence in 1822. 3 years later, Portugal quietly admitted Brazil independent. Dom Pedro
To spend money to earn more money. Invest
The ways that goods and services are produced and made available to people. Economy
A poor Latin American farmer. Campesino
Having to do with the countryside. Rural
Having to do with cities. Urban
The largest country in South America. Brazil
Created by: bmahoney