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The only fluid tissue in the human body Classified as a connective tissue Living cells = formed elements Non-living matrix = plasma Blood
Oxygen-rich blood is _____ red Oxygen-poor blood is _____ red Scarlet;dull
regulates osmotic pressure Albumin
help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured Clotting Proteins
help protect the body from antigens Antibodies
Erythrocytes red blood cells
Leukocytes white blood cells
Platelets cell fragments
The main function is to carry oxygen Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
Iron containing protein that binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen Hemoglobin
Crucial in the body’s defense against disease Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
These are complete cells, with a nucleus and organelles and are able to move into and out of blood vessels (diapedesis) Leukocytes
Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml and Generally indicates an infection Leukocytosis
Abnormally low leukocyte level and Commonly caused by certain drugs Leukopenia
Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained and Include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Granulocytes
Lack visible cytoplasmic granules and Include lymphocytes and monocytes Agranulocytes
Multilobed nucleus with fine granules and Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection that act as large brick red cytoplasmic granules and are also found in repsonse to allergies and parasitic worms Neutrophils
Have histamine containing granules and Initiate inflammation Basophils
Nucleus fills most of the cell and Play an important role in the immune response Lymphocytes
Largest of the white blood cells they Function as macrophages and are Important in fighting chronic infection Monocytes
Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) that are Needed for the clotting process that has a Normal platelet count = 300,000/mm3 Platelets
Blood cell formation, it Occurs in red bone marrow, and All blood cells are derived from a common stem cell (hemocytoblast) Hematopoiesis
Lymphoid stem cell produces lymphocytes, Myeloid stem cell produces other formed elements Hemocytoblast differentiation
Unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins, Wear out in 100 to 120 days, When worn out, are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver, Lost cells are replaced by division of hemocytoblasts Fate of Erythrocytes
Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin)
________ produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood Kidneys
________is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels Homeostasis
Stoppage of blood flow, Result of a break in a blood vessel Hemostasis
Platelet plug formation, Vascular spasms, Coagulation Hemostasis involves three phases
Anchored platelets release serotonin Vascular Spasms
Injured tissues release thromboplastin, PF3 (a phospholipid) interacts with thromboplastin, blood protein clotting factors, and calcium ions to trigger a clotting cascade Coagulation
Fibrin forms a meshwork (the basis for a clot) Coagulation
Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes, The clot remains as endothelium regenerates, The clot is broken down after tissue repair Blood Clotting
Undesirable Clotting Fibrin Clot
A clot in an unbroken blood vessel that can be deadly in areas like the heart Thrombus
A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream and Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the brain Embolus
Platelet deficiency and even normal movements can cause bleeding from small blood vessels that require platelets for clotting Thrombocytopenia
Hereditary bleeding disorder and Normal clotting factors are missing Hemophilia
Large losses of blood have serious consequences Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness and Loss of over 30 percent causes shock, which can be fatal
Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly and Transfused blood must be of the ____ blood group same
A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune system
Blood is “typed” by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump agglutination
There are over __ common red blood cell antigens 30
Based on the presence or absence of two antigens Type A or Type B
ABO Blood Groups The lack of these antigens is called Type O
The presence of both A and B Type AB
The presence of either A or B Types A and B, respectively
Named because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D) Rh Blood Groups
Most Americans are Rh (plus or minus) plus + (Problems can occur in mixing Rh+ blood into a body with Rh negative blood
Danger only when the mother is Rh minus and the father is Rh+, and the child inherits the Rh+ factor
The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby can cause problems for the unborn child and The first pregnancy usually proceeds _____ problems without
The immune system is sensitized after the first pregnancy and so in a second pregnancy, the mother’s immune system produces ______ to attack the Rh+ blood (hemolytic disease of the newborn) antibodies
Blood samples are mixed with anti A and anti B serum and ________or no ________ leads to determining blood Coagulation
Testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipient’s serum, and vice versa Cross matching
The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation and Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month, these are Sites of blood cell formation
Fetal ________ differs from _________ produced after birth hemoglobin
The Heart: Valves Allow blood to flow in only direction
Fourt valves are what? Atrioventricular, Bicuspid, Tricuspid & Semilunar valves, Pulmonary semilunar valve
Atrioventricular valves between atria and ventricles
Bicuspid valve left
Tricuspid valve right
Semilunar valves are between what and what? ventricle and artery
Valves open as blood is ________through pumped
Held in place by what? chordae tendineae (“heart strings”)
True or false True that used to close to prevent backflow
Ventricular Diastole relaxed ventricles; fills with blood; loose tendineae; blood flows from Atria to Ventricles
Ventricular Systole contracted ventricles; blood moves back to atria and cusps close (valve closed); tendineae prevent cusps swinging shut too far
Regurgitation backflow of blood into the atria each time ventricles contract (heart murmur)
Semilunar Valves Pulmonary and Aortic Semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood from pulmonary trunk and aorta into the R. and L. Ventricles; No muscular braces b/c arterial walls don’t contract, the 3 cusps support each other!
Aorta Leaves left ventricle
Pulmonary arteries Leave right ventricle
Vena cava Enters right atrium
Pulmonary veins (four) Enter left atrium
Epicardium Outside layer-This layer is the parietal pericardium
Connective tissue layer Myocardium
Middle layer Mostly cardiac muscle and Endocardium
Inner layer Endothelium
Coronary Circulation Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium
Blood empties into the ¬¬right or left atrium via the sinus? Right
Intrinsic conduction system ( nodal system-nodes-pacemaker-contract-shock)
Fibrous Skeleton 4 dense bands of elastic tissue that go around the base of the pulmonary trunk and aorta and the heart valves
Coronary Circulation blood…heart muscles; provides oxygen and nutrients; increased exertion, increased oxygen demand, increased blood flow
Right Coronary Artery follows coronary sulcus around the heart; supplied blood to R.Atrium, part of both ventricles, SA/AV nodes (conducting system); several artery branches across the ventricular surface
Left Coronary Artery supplies blood to L.Ventricle, L.Atrium, and the Interventricular septum; branches on the anterior surface
Anastomoses interconnections between arteries to provide constant blood supply to heart
Cardiac Veins great cardiac vein (anterior surface of ventricles)
Empties into what? Coronary Sinus (on posterior side)
All other veins empty into what? Great Cardiac Vein
2 types of cardiac muscle cells Contractile Cells and Conducting System Muscle Cells
Sinoatrial node Pacemaker, Atrioventricular node, Atrioventricular bundle
Bundle Branches, Purkinje fibers
Heart Contractions Contraction is initiated by the sinoatrial node
Sequential stimulation occurs at other autorhythmic cells
Contractile Cells Atrial and ventricular walls
Action potential produces what? Ca²+
Resting ventricular contractile cell -09mV (Volts-electrical current)
Atrial contractile cell -80mV
Action potential lasts 250-300 msec
Rapid depolarization fast channels open and a rush of Na+ enter the membrane +30mV sodium channel closes; calcium channels opens (slow channels) “plateau”
Repolarizaiton calcium channels slowly closes and slow potassium channels open (restores resting potential)
Action Potential in Cardiac Muscle Cell Membranes Produce what? CONTRACTIONS! (caused by concentration of Ca²+)
Refractory Period “wait time” before response from heart
Cardiac muscle tissue contracts w/out help: true or false? False, on its own (no neural or hormonal stimulation)
Conducting System network of specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiates and distributes electrical impulses
Includes Sinoatrial (SA) Node- wall of R.Atria; Atrioventricular (AV) node-b/w atrial and ventricles
Ventricular Conducting Cells AV bundle, Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers
Conducting cells are what? smaller than contractile cells, can’t maintain a stable resting potential (each time repolarization occurs, gradual drift toward threshold…“prepotential”)
Contains pacemaker cells which does what? establishes heart rate
Atrials must _____ before ventricles contract
Heart Contractions Filling of Heart Chambers – the Cardiac Cycle
Created by: elizabethrocks1