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Chapter 2 terms2

Chapter 2

abdominal cavity The space bounded by the abdominal walls, diaphragm, and pelvis and containing most of the organs of digestion, the spleen, the kidneys, and the adrenal glands.
adenectomy surgical excision of a gland.
adenocarcinoma a malignant tumor of glandlike structure
adenoma a benign tumor originating in a secretory gland
adenosclerosis The hardening of a gland.
anaplasia the loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells.
anatomy dissection of all or part of an animal or plant in order to study its structure.
anomaly someone or something that is abnormal or incongruous, or does not fit in; an anomalous person or thing:
anterior pertaining to or toward the front plane of the body, equivalent to the ventral surface of quadrupeds
aplasia defective development or congenital absence of a limb, organ, or other body part.
bloodborne transmission
caudal caudal anesthetic
cephalic of or pertaining to the head.
chromosomes any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively.
communicable disease A disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector. Also called contagious disease .
congenital disorder defect that is present at birth
cytoplasm the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
distal situated away from the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone; terminal.
dorsal of, pertaining to, or situated at the back, or dorsum.
dysplasia abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ.
endemic belonging exclusively or confined to a particular place: a fever endemic to the tropics.
endocrine glands any of various glands, as the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands, that secrete certain substances or hormones directly into the blood or lymph; ductless gland.
epidemic of a disease) affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.
epigastric region the the upper central region of the abdomen located between the costal margins and the subcostal plane
etiology the study of the causes of diseases.
exocrine glands any of several glands, as the salivary glands, that secrete externally through a duct.
functional disorder A physical disorder in which the symptoms have no known or detectable organic basis but are believed to be the result of psychological factors such as emotional conflicts or stress. Also called functional disease .
genetic disorder disease or condition caused by an absent or defective gene or by a chromosomal aberration, as in Down Syndrome .
geriatrician the branch of medicine dealing with the diseases, debilities, and care of aged persons.
hemophilia any of several X-linked genetic disorders, symptomatic chiefly in males, in which excessive bleeding occurs owing to the absence or abnormality of a clotting factor in the blood.
histology the structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues.
homeostasis the tendency of a system, especially the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus that would tend to disturb its normal condition or function
hyperplasia abnormal multiplication of cells.
hypertrophy abnormal enlargement of a part or organ; excessive growth.
hypogastric region refers to that which is related to the lower middle region under the umbilical region
hypoplasia abnormal deficiency of cells or structural elements.
iatrogenic illness It is an adverse mental or physical condition caused by the effects of treatment by a physician or surgeon.
idiopathic disorder any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause [syn: idiopathic disease]
infectious disease disease resulting from the presence and activity of a pathogenic microbial agent.
inguinal of, pertaining to, or situated in the groin.
medial situated in or pertaining to the middle; median; intermediate.
mesentery membrane, consisting of a double layer of peritoneum, that invests the intestines, attaching them to the posterior wall of the abdomen, maintaining them in position in the abdominal cavity, and supplying them with blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics,
midsagittal plane a plane passing through the nasion when the skull is oriented in the Frankfurt horizontal.
nosocomial infection is one that results from treatment, for something else, in a health care facility.
pandemic (of a disease) prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the whole world; epidemic over a large area.
pelvic cavity The space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and pelvic girdle.
peritoneum the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and investing its viscera.
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum, often accompanied by pain and tenderness in the abdomen, vomiting, constipation, and moderate fever.
phenylketonuria an inherited disease due to faulty metabolism of phenylalanine, characterized by phenylketones in the urine and usually first noted by signs of mental retardation in infancy.
physiology the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes.
posterior situated behind or at the rear of; hinder
proximal situated toward the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone
retroperitoneal Situated behind the peritoneum.
stem cells a cell that upon division replaces its own numbers and also gives rise to cells that differentiate further into one or more specialized types, as various B cells and T cells.
thoracic cavity The space within the walls of the chest, bounded below by the diaphragm and above by the neck, and containing the heart and the lungs.
transverse plane a plane across the body at right angles to the coronal and sagittal plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a body or object; also, a plane dividing the body into an upper and lower section; also called horizontal plane
umbilicus Anatomy . the depression in the center of the surface of the abdomen indicating the point of attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo; navel.
ventral or pertaining to the venter or belly; abdominal.
transmission act or process of transmitting.
Created by: 144294