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Oral Pathology

Chapter 7 - Oral Infections (Sapp)

3 most commonly encountered families of viruses within the oral cavity? 1.Herpesvirus 2. Coxsackievirus 3. Papovavirus
HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV exhibit what kind of cellular tropism? Neurotropism
What are the viruses of the Herpes family? 1. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 2. Herpes Simple Virus 2 3. Varicella-Zoster Virus 4. Epstein-Barr Virus 5. Cytomegalovirus 6. Other Human Herpesvirus (6,7,8)
EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8 exhibit what kind of cellular tropism? Lymphotropism
Herpes virus that exhibits oncogenic potential? HSV-2
Herpes virus associated with epithelial and lymphoid malginancies? EBV
Herpes virus associated with the malignant endothelial cells of Kaposi Sarcoma? HHV-8
Herpes virus whose replication occurs primarily in epithelial cells? Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes Simplex virus that occurs primarily in lesion located above the waist? HSV-1
Herpes simplex virus that occurs primarily in lesions below the waist? HSV-2
Incubation period of HSV before the emergence of visible lesions ranges from? 1-26 days, commonly 7-8 days
An uncommon clinical presentation of an inital herpes simplex infection in which multiple shallow ulcers are present througout both teh keratinized and gland-bearing intraoral surfaces; accompaniend by systemic symptoms of fever, lymphadenopathy, and myal Acute Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
1% of initial oral infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 occurs as a highly visible and acutely symptomatic primary infection? Acute Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
Two main types of recurrent oral herpes simplex infections based on the location of the lesions are? 1. Recurrent Herpes Labialis 2. Recurrent Intraoral Herpes
Episodic occurences of cluster of vesicles and shallow ulcers localized to the lateral aspects of the lips in patients with latent herpes simplex infections; Recurrent Herpes Labialis
Most common form of recurrent herpes simplex infections affecting the lips in 15 to 20% of those who have had a primary infeciton? Recurrent Herpes Labialis
Other term for recurrent herpes labialis? Cold Sore
Episodic occurences of an intraoral cluster of symptomatic shallow punctat ulcers, commonly but not exclusively on the mucosa overlying hte greater palatin foramina and typically appearing after dental procedures in the area? Recurrent Intraoral Herpes
Occurs frequently in infants born to mothers experiencing primary HSV infection (50% incidence), and infant born to mothers experiencing recurrent HSV infection (3% incidence)? Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus
A primary or secondary herpes simplex infection localized to the hands or fingers and acquired by direct ocntact wiht an active lesion? Herpetic Whitlow
Lesions of the hands which are usually vesicular or pustular and surrounded by a wide zone of erythema? Herpetic Whitlow
Treatment for Herpetic Whitlow? Oral Famciclovir
Condition wherein infected keratinocytes initially accumulate fluid and swell, giving the cytoplasms a vacuolated appearance? Ballooning Degeneration
Primary infection of VZV is known as? Varicella or Chicken Pox
Recurrent disease of VZV is known as? Herpes Zoster or Shingles
VZV's initial mode of infection is through? Inhalation of droplets that enter the body through the respiratory system
Condition wherein replication occurs before systemic spreading via the bloodstream? Viremia
Primary infection of the VZV acquired during childhood that produces a generalized systematic maculopapular rash of the skin, malaise, fever, and minor lesions throughout the oral cavity? Varicella or Chicken Pox
Incubation period of primary VZV? 2 weeks
Pustular skin lesions become secondarily infected and may heal as a small, depressed scar, known as? Pock
A regional occurence of VZV that appears as vesicular eruptions of the skin or mucosa in a distintive unilateral pattern; pain persists for prolonged perios after lesions heal. Herpes Zoster or Shingles
Predominant clincial feature on the skin is a unilateral linear vesicular rash outlining the cutaneous distribution of the affected peripheral nerves, most commonly thsoe of dermatomes T3 to L3? Herpes Zoster or Shingles
Condition wherein pain persists for 1 month or more after the lesions have healed? What viral infection is this? Postherpetic Neuralgia;
Ramsey Hunt Syndrome presents with a triad of conditions consisting of? 1. Ipsilateral Facial Palsey 2. External Auditory Canal Lesions 3. Loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
Syndrome associated with Shingles? Ramsey Hunt Syndrome
Member of the herpesvirus group that exhibits tropism for human B lymphocytes? Epstein-Barr Virus
EBV is known to be a causative factor in? 1. Infectious Mononucleosis 2. Burkitt Lymphoma 3. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
EBV is transmitted through? Saliva containing the virus (shed from epithelial cells of the oropharynx of infected patients)
A debilitating EBV infection of B lymphocytes characterized by fatigue, malaise, lymphadenopathy, fever, and other symptoms that persist for prologned perios; it occurs primarily in young adults Infectious Mononucleosis
IM generally persists for how long? 4-6 weeks
Viral infection that when contracted during fetal development from an infected mother can cause a possibility of stillbirth? Cytomegalovirus
CMV is transmitted through? blood-to-blood and intimate contacts and organ transplants
Appears clincially much like IM, but is heterophil antibody negative? CMV
Histopath of this infection includes parenchymal and individual cells within the surrounding connective tissue which are 2 to 4 times larger than normal cells and contain large intarnuclear inclusion bodies measuring 8 to 10 m CMV
Portal of entry of the Coxsackie virus? Oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract
Coxsackie virus type that affect the oral region? Coxsackie A
Two types of Coxsackie virus? Coxsackie A and B
Three Coxsackie viral infections of the oral cavity? 1. Herpangina 2. Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease 3. Lymphonodular Pharyngitis
A nontreatable mild infection casued by a misture of coxsackie virus A localized to the posterior sofat palate and nasopharynx that consist of multiple small shallow ulcers resembling a herpetic infection that lasts for approximately 1 week Herpangina
Transmission of herpangina is through? Inhalation of airborne droplets or by contacts with saliva containing coxsackievirus A
CSV A can survive outside the body for how long? 2 to 4 hours
CSV viral infection presenting with small vesicular or punctate lesions with a whie base present on the posterior soft palate near the uvula and anterior fauces of the tonsils Herpangina
A highly contagious systemic infection of CSV A subtypes (9 and 16) of limited duration in which vesicular eruptions occur on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and mucosa ofhte anterior part ofthe mouth HFM Disease
HFM Disease is usually caused by which virus? specific subtype please CSV A, subtype 9 and 16
Clinical features of this type of CSV infection include eruption of small vesicles on an erythematous base on the palms of the hands and the feet; with oral vesicles and ulcers appearing on the mucous membranes confined to the anterior part of hte mouth HFM Disease
A localized infection of CSV A (subtype 10), consisting of yellow or white papules surrounded by an erythematous zone confined to the lymphoid tissues of the posterior soft palate and nasopharynx that lasts from 1 to 2 weeks Acute Lymphonodular Pharyngitis
Characteristic lesions are located in the same anatomic region of the mouth as herpangina; appearing as raised white or yellow papules or nodules that do not ulcerate Acute Lymphonodular Pharyngitis
A systemic viral infection beginning in the respiratory tract and extending to the circulatory system; produces a papular skin rash, fever, and malaise that last from 1 to 2 weeks; capable of producing congenital defects during pregnancy Rubella
Rubella is commonly known as? German Measles
Prodromal period of Rubella lasts for how long? 2 weeks
Infection of Rubella is through? Inhalation of respiratory droplets
A highly contagious systemic viral infection contracted through the respiratory system and spread through the circulatory system, with a predilection for skin blood vessels that produce a skin rash and sometimes pneumonia and encephalitis? Measles
The measles virus has a predilection for which cellular structure? Blood vessel walls, particularly those of the skin
Clinical features of this viral infection include headaches, a rash, photophobia, high fever and a cough? Measles
Incubation period of measles is how long? 2 to 4 days
Lesions pathognomic to measles that occur on the oral mucous membranes, usually before the development of a skin rash? Koplik spots
A viral infection contracted through the respiratory system that primarily affects one or more salivary glands with swelling and pain; occasionally affects other organs and produces fever and malaise Mumps
Mumps is also known as? Epidemic Parotitis
Mumps is spread through? saliva and nasal droplets
Clinical feature of this viral infection include swelling of one or both parotid glands? Mumps
Clinical sign of this infection includes elevation of the earlobe on one or both of the affected sides when viewed from behind? Mumps
2 most prominent members of the paramyxoviruses? 1. measles 2. mumps
A papillary focal epithelial hyperplasia common in the posterior aspect of the mouth, containing koilocytic cells and HPV 6 and 11? Squamous Papilloma
Squamous Papilloma contains which subtypes of HPV? HPV 6 and 11
Verruca vulgaris is generally known as? A wart
Which subtypes of HPV are found in verruca vulgaris? HPV 2 and 6
Lesions of this infection are exophytic, keratinized, sessile papules or nodules with "warty" (cauliflower) surfaces? Verruca vulgaris
This infection exhibits papillary epithelial proliferation in the form of multiply fingerlike projections exhibiting hyperkeratosis and a prominent granular cell layer; also has radially-oriented rete pegs Verruca vulgaris
Superficial epithelial cells with shrunken nuclei and perinuclear clearing? Koilocytosis
What does koilocytosis indicate? HPV infection
Multiple papillary or sessile focal areas of eptihelial hyperplasia of the genital and oral mucosa that contain koilocytes, HPV-6 or HPV-11, and is difficult to eradicate Condyloma Acuminatum
Condyloma acuminatum is commonly known as? Genital or Venereal wart
Which subtypes of HPV can be found in Condyloma Acuminatum? HPV 6 and 11
Oral lesions of this infection in young children can indicate sexual abuse? Condyloma Acuminatum
This infection presents as solitary or multiple, pinkish, sessile papules or plaques with pebbled surfaces or as pedunculated papillary lesions? Condyloma Acuminatum
Characteristic feature of this infection is the presence of koilocytes? Condyloma Acuminatum, though also found in Verruca vulgaris, squamous papilloma, and focal epithelial hyperplasia (and hairy leukoplakia)
Multiple papillary or sessile areas of epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa in young patients of specific population isolates that frequently regress spontaneously; the epithelium is extensivley thickened and contains koilocytes, HPV 13, and HPV 32? Focal epithelial hyperplasia
A papillary focal epithelial hyperplasia commonly containing koilocytic cells and HPV 2 and 6; usually occurs on the hands and in the anterior aspect of the mouths of children? Verruca Vulgaris
Focal epithelial hyperplasia is also known as? Heck Disease
A condition found primarily in isolated groups of native Indians of North and Central America and Brazil, northern native peoples, and other groups in Europe and Africa? Heck Disease
Lesions of focal epithelial hyperplasia contain abundant numbers of which subtypes of HPV? HPV 13 and 32
Greatly thickened layers of parakeratin and extensive acanthosis are characteristic of this infection? Focal epithelial hyperplasia
Cells with an unusual arrangement of the nuclear material resembling abnormal mitotic figures are a frequent finding within the spinous cell layer of this infection? What are these cells called? Focal epithelial hyperplasia; mitosoid cells or bodies
HIV exhibits tropism for which cells? T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and certain nerve cells
What viral enzyme is used by the HIV to splice newly formed viral DNA into the genome of the host cell? Integrase
Five stages of an HIV infection? 1. Window 2. Seroconversion 3. Asymptomatic 4. Symptomatic 5. AIDS
Stage of HIV after initial contact, 2 to 12 week delay is seen before antibodies to the virus are detectable in the blood; patients are unaware of their status; testing usually yields a fals negative Window Stage
Technique used to target actual specific HIV antigens to confirm a patient's status of HIV? Western blot technique
Stage of HIV wherein antibodies and viruses appear in the blood in greater numbers, patients experience noticeable malaise, lethargy, mild temperature elevation, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, chronic cough, and a skin rash? Sereconversion stage
Seroconversion stage usually lasts for how long? Between 2 and 4 weeks
This stage of HIV resembles those of a flu or a mild form of infectious mononucelosis? Seroconversion stage
Stage of HIV that consists of a prolonged period of latecy, with few if any symptoms that may last for 6 months in infants and 10 to 20 years in adults? Asymptomatic stage
Combination of drugs used to treat HIV? HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)
During this stage of HIV, patients may initially have no symptoms other than the gradual development of chronic lymphadenopathy? Asymptomatic stage
What are the manifestations of the symptomatic stage of HIV? 1. Night sweats, malaise, fever 2. Weight loss 3. Memory loss, mild dementia 4. Chronic infections 5. Generalized lymphadenopathy 6. Diarrhea
Stage of HIV wherein the patient's CD4+ lymphocyte counts falls below 200/ul? AIDS stage
Symptoms of AIDS include? (part 1) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, cerebral meningitis, Kaposi sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Symptoms of AIDS (part 2)? Generalized herpes simplex/varicella-zoster infections, CMV retinitis, pneumonia, colitis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidosis, histoplasmosis, or other deep mycotic infections, and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections
Oral lesions of HIV-positive Pre-AIDS patients? Hairy leukoplakia, acute pseudomembranous candidiasis, diffuse herpes simplex gingivostomatitis, gingivitis/periodontitis, acute nonspecific ulcers, and diffues varicella-zoster lesions
Common oral lesions in patients with AIDS? (part 1) Candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, diffuse herpes simplex gingivostomatitis, diffuse varicella-zoster lesions, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV gingivitis/periodontitis, acute nonspecific ulcers, and chronic ulcers
Common oral lesions in patients with AIDS? (part 2) Cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus ulcer, and herpes simplex infection
White patches of the lateral borders of the tongue that hava a tendency for vertical leinear folds found in latecy stages of HIV-infected patietns; the thickened epithelium contains an upper zone of koilocytes, most of which contain EBV? Hairy Leukoplakia
Koilocytes of hairy leukoplakia usually contain which virus? EBV
Persistent and refractory acute or chronic forms of C. albicans infectino sof the oral mucous membranes, in an otherwise healthy patient usually indicates what? Impending deterioration of the immune system in HIV-positive patients
Common Candida species found in HIV-positive patients? albicans, tropicalis, glabrata, and parapsilosis
Most common infection by mycotic organisms capable of penetrating into the underlying connective tissue? Histoplasmosis
This mycotic infection is characterized by mucosal ulcerations or red granular swellings? Histoplasmosis
HIV-induced lesions in which the gingiva develops an unusually intense narrow zone of erythema of primarily the free gingiva? Linear Gingival Erythema
Condition from LGE wherein some teeth are spared and others are severely affected? Skip lesions
This type of periodontitis shows a rapid denuding of the gingival tissue with resultant exposure of the alveolar bone? Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis
Oral ulcers in HIV-positive patients that resemble large and deeper versions of aphthous ulcers? Acute Nonspecific Ulcers
This ulcers are crateriform, with a large erythematous halo, with edges that are often sharp or thickened? Acute nonspecific ulcers
Macular or nodular vascular lesions occuring singularly or in multiles on the mucosa and skin of HIV-infected patients; lesions consist of proliferating atypical endothelial cells and are indicative that the patient has AIDS? Kaposi sarcoma
HHV-8 is strongly associated with wich disease? Kaposi sarcoma
Early nodular lesions of this infection may resemble a pyogenic granuloma? Kaposi sarcoma
Mature lesions of this infection exhibit proliferation of hyperchromatic spindle-shaped or oval endothelia cless arranged in an irregular vascular pattern? Kaposi sarcoma
Extravasated red blood cells and hemosiderin deposits are characteristic of this infection Kaposi sarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma characteristically presents with what? extravasated red blood cells and hemosiderin deposits
Lymphoma seen in HIV-positive patients; B-cell type of lesion; characterized by their rapid appearance and growth, which quickly undergoes ulceration; borders are raised, rolled, and indurated? Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Lymphoma with cells that exhibit features in common with Burkitt lymphoma? Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Usual viral infections in HIV-positive patients? Herpes simplex and varicella (also CMV, EBV, and HPV)
Orofacial lesions commonly associated with pediatric HIV infection include? Candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, linear gingival erythema, parotid enlargement, and aphthous ulcers
Large group of gram-positivce organisms, mostly facultative anaerobes that grow in pairs or short chains? Streptococci
2 members of streptococci that are of particular importance within the oral cavity? 1. Streptococcus pyogenes 2. Streptococcus viridans
These two infections are commonly referred to as Strep throat? Pharyngitis and tonsillitis
Acute condition caused by a beta hemolytic streptoccocus; occurs primarily in young patients, with symptoms including sudden onset of elevated temperature, throat soreness, chills, malaise, cervical lymphadenopathy, and headache? Pharyngitis and tonsillitis
Strep throat is transmitted through? Inhalation of infected droplets
Symptoms of strep throat infection occurs how many days after contact? 2 to 4 days
Infection which presents in the oral cavity as generalized edema, elongation of the uvula, and diffuse petechiae; dorsal surface of the tongue becomes whitened, and the fungiform papillae become erythematous and enlarged? Scarlet fever
Infection which appears clinically in the oral cavity as strawberry tongue? Scarlet fever
Acute pustular eruptions of the perioral skin of children usually with inadequate perioral hygiene, in which Streptococcus pyogens and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens? Impetigo
Appears clinically similar to perioral primary or recurrent herpes infections and allergic stomatitis? Impetigo
Bacteria found most commonly in acute forms of osteomyelitis? Staphylococcus aureus
Potent human pathogens that produce purulent exudate and cause a large array of diseases; they are round, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacterium that grows in clusters? Staphylococcus
Infection that occurs as a result of direct invasion through a break in the mucosa overlying the mandible and occasionally the maxilla or through hematologic spread from an adjacent or remot focus of infection? Osteomyelitis
Aerobic bacilli with a cell wall containing a high lipid component, making them resistant to medications that are in an aqueous solution? Mycobacterium
Chronic granulomatous infection of the lugns caused by M. tuberculosis, which is spread by aerosols; can occasionally have associated chronic oral ulcers, enlarged nasopharyngeal and cervical lymph nodes, or a combination? Tuberculosis
How is tuberculosis spread? Aerosols that usually enter the body through the lungs and lodge in the terminal alveoli
The presence of an antibody response in an infected patient can be deteced by a positive skin reaction with this test when challenged with fragments of the protein structure of the bacteria? Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) Test
Clinical appearance of this infection in the oral cavity is a chronic ulcer with indurated borders or as a sweling in the tonsils, other lymphoid-rich areas of the psoterior aspect of the mouth and the nasopharynx, and regional cervical lymph nodes? Tuberculosis
Histologic appearance of lesions of this infection consists of granulomas exhibiting a central necrotic focus surrounded by mononuclear cells and multinucleated Langhans giant cells; a mantle of lymphocytes and fibrous tissue surround the granuloma? Tuberculosis
Treatment for Tuberculosis? How long is it administered? Isoniazid and rifampin combination (augmented with pyrazinamide); 4 to 8 months
Treatment for impetigo? Topical ointment (mupirocin) and systemic antibiotics (dicloxacillin, cephalexin)
Most common microorganism of the order Spirochaetales (spirochetes)? Treponema pallidum
Microorganism responsible for syphilis? Treponema pallidum
A sexually transmitted local and systemic infection by Treponema pallidum? Syphilis
What are the three progressive clinical stages of syphilis? 1. primary chancre at the point of contact 2. a secondary skin rash and mucous patches 3. tertiary (late) systemically disseminated lesions
Primary syphilis occurs as a localized lesion at the site of contact know as? Chancre
Asymptomatic incubation of syphilis occurs for how long? An average of 21 days
Primary syphilis lesions, if treated, takes how long to heal? 10 to 14 days
Primary syphilis lesions, if not treated, heal for how long? 3 to 6 weeks
How long does it take for secondary syphillis to develop after the initial infection if the primary stage of syphilis is not treated? 2 to 6 months
Secondary syphilis lesions take how long to heal? 2 to 4 weeks, with or without treatment
Stage of syphilis that involves primarily the central nervous system and cardiovascular system? Tertiary or late syphilis
Characteristic lesions of the late stage of syphilis are known as? Gummas
Most serious complication of the late stage of syphilis Destruction of the walls of the large blood vessels, resulting in aneurysms and cardiac insufficiency
Known as perioral vertical creases? Rhagades
Known as destruction of the nasal spine? Saddle nose
What manifestations make up the Hutchinson triad? 1. Blindness 2. Deafness 3. Dental anomalies
Congenital syphilis is closely related with which symptoms? Hutchinson triad
Molars with constricted and atrophic cusps? Mulberry molars
Notched, peg-shapped laterals are known as? Hutchinson teeth
What dental anomalies can be seen in children with congenital syphilis? Anterior teeth that are narrower at the incisal edge than at the middle third (screwdriver teeth) and notched (Hutchinson teeth), pegged-shaped laterals, and mulberry molars
Treatment for syphilis? Penicillin G benzathine (for all stages)
An acute deep suppurative abscess of the upper neck, periooral area, and jaws, with an associated drainign sinus tract that contains "sulfur granules" and purulent exudate caused by Actinomyces israelii? Oral-cervicofacial Actinomycosis
A filamentous, anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria responsible for oral-cervicofacial actinomycosis? Actinomyces israelii
A. israelii is normally present in what parts of the oral cavity? Tonsillar crypts, carious teeth, and calcular deposits
Other name for oral-cervicofacial actinomycosis? Lumpy jaw disease
Exudates emanating from the draining sinus tracts of an oral-cervicofacial actinomycosis will ofen contain small, clinically visible yellowish-green calcified structures referred to as? Sulfur granules
Sulfur granules represent and indicate what? Calcified colonies of A. israelii and are indicative of actinomycosis
Tissue changes of this infections are similar to those of an acute abscess, consisting of a central cavity containg purulent exudate that surrounds mulitple clacified coloines of filamentous bacteria? Actinomycosis
Treatment for actinomycosis? Surgical drainage and debridement, followed by a high daily dose of penicillin for at least 10 days
Other names for candidiasis? Candidosis and moniliasis
This type of infection is usually among the first to take advantage of any reduction in the defense system of the host cell? Candidiasis
Infection which presents with pharyngitis, tonsillitis, a rash occurs over the upper trunk and spreads to involve the extremeties; rash is composed of numerous minute red papules, giving the skin a roughened feel and appearance? Scarlet Fever
Classifications of the basic types of oral candidiasis? 1. Acute (pseudomembranous or atrophic) 2. Hyperplasitc (candidal leukoplakia)
Oral lesions associated with Candida albicans? 1. Angular cheilitis (perleche) 2. Median rhomboid glossitis 3. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
A clinical form of C. albicans infection that consists of creamy, loos patches of desquamative epthelium containing numerous matted mycelia over an erythematous mucosa that is easily removed; common in patients with more severe predisposing factors? Acute Pseudomembranous Candidiasis
Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis is also known as? Thrush
This infection is characterized by the presence of white curds or creamy, loose patches in various intraoral sites; patches can be easily removed; with underlying mucosa being erythematous and can bleed slightly? Thrush
Common causes of thrush? Prolonged use of antibiotics, use of sytemic steroids, HIV infection, chronic xerostomia (radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or medications); Sjogren sydrome, and diabetes milletus
Treatment for acute pseudomembranous candidiasis for patients who are immunosuppressed? Amphotericin B
A clinical form of C. albicans infection in which the mucosa is thinned, smooth, and bright red with symptoms of burning and increased sensitivity; commony found on the palate under a denture but also on the tongue and other mucosal surfaces? Atrophic (Erythematous) Candidiasis
Atrophic Candidiasis is also known as? Denture sore mouth
In this infection, the tongue exhibits a smooth and beefy-red appearance? Atrophic (Erythematous) candidiasis
A clinical form of C. albicans infection consisting of white plaques or papules against an erythematous background containing hyphae in the parakeratin layer of the thickened epithelium? Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis is also termed as? Candidal leukoplakia
Symptomatic bilateral fissure of the corners of the mouth that are common in patients with C. albican infection in other parts of the mouth and often intensified with mouth overclosure; requres treatment with antifungal medication? Angular cheilitis
Angular cheilitis is also known as? Perleche
An asymptomatic, elongated, erythematous patch of atrophic mucosa of the middorsal surface of the tongue because of a chronic C. albicans infection? Median rhomboid glossitis
A condition in which persistent and refractory candidiasis occurs on the mucous membranes, skin, and nails of the affected patients; wherein most of these patients exhibit endocrinopathies or defects of the immune system? Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
A chronic lung infection caused by inhalation of spores of Histoplasma capsulatum; may have associated intraoral lesions consisting of a chronic ulcer clinically resembling a malignancy and is best treated with amphotericin B? Histoplasmosis
Organisms of this infection are present as saprophytic spores found in soil contaminated by bat and bird droppings? What are these organisms? Histoplasmosis; Histoplasma capsulatum
Oral lesions of this infection are granulomatous and appear initially as a nodule and later as a chronic ulcer with raised, rolled borders and induration of the surrounding tissue; clinical appearance that resembles that of carcinoma or tuberculosis? Histoplasmosis
Created by: TheDarkDentist