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human diseases

Neoplasm = new growth or formation that serves no purpose
Define and give characteristics of a benign tumor excessive growth of cells that may be small or large enough to interfere with normal body functions. Remains localized as a discrete mass.
Define and give characteristics of a malignant tumor invasive, grows rapidly, sometimes anaplastic, can metastasize thru blood or lymphmatic system, distorted in size, shape and structure.
define anaplastic the cell has lost it's definition and can no longer resemble it's parent cell or tissue. The cells are no longer differentiated as seen in malignant neoplasm, they no longer resemble the host tissue
what is the most prevalent type of cancer in women? breast cancer
What is the most prevalent type of cancer in men prostate cancer
what is the most prevalent type of cancer amoung men younger than 40 testicular cancer
The leading type of cancer death in men and women combined is? lung cancer
What type of cancer is one in which the cancer cells have not yet spread from the site of the tumor? carcinoma insitu
If the cancer has spread only to sites within the same region of the body, it is in the what stage? regional stage
If the cancer has entered the blood stream and spread to other areas of the body, it is in the what stage? distant stage
define the term carcinogen substances or agents that increase the risk of cancer such as chemicals, toxins, tobacco, high fat-low fiber diet
Define the term metastasize cancer cells that spread to another location through the circulatory system or lymphatic system
There is a high incidence of colon cancer in patient's that consume what type of diet? high-fat, low fiber diet
What are 5 preventative measures recommended by the American Cancer Society No tobacco use practice sun safety eat a healthy diet exercise regularly get vaccinated avoid risky practices practice self exams
What does the pap test or pap smear help to detect cervical cancer, but will not detect ovarian cancer
What does the PSA test help detect in men prostate cancer
What three categorizes are neoplasms classified into benign, malignant
define Carcinomas solid tumors of the epithelial tissue of external & internal body surfaces
define Sarcomas arise from supportive & connective tissues such as bone, fat, muscle and cartilage
what is leukemia cancer of the blood and bone marrow
what is lymphoma
The etiology of cancer may include: It may be genetically linked may be linked to a virus may be due to uncontrollable cell growth may be due to decreased immune system
give 2 examples of substances or agents that may be carcinogens chemicals, tobacco, UV rays
Define hyperplasia excessive growth cells
define dysplasia abnormal growth of cells
define carcinoma in situ mean a cancer growth that stays in place
A procedure in which live tissue sample is taken for microscopic examination is called a? biopsy
In which grade of cancer are the tumors cells well differentiated and in which they resemble the normal parent cells Grade I
In which grade of cancer are the tumor cells so anaplastic that recognition of the original tissue is difficult Grade IV
Tumors are graded on a scale of I - IV
In staging neoplasms, what does the T, N, M stand for T=size and extent of the tumor N=number of area lymph nodes involved M= any metastasis of the primary tumor
Cancer treatment usually involves an integration of various therpies? True
What type of surgery is done only to relieve the patient's symptoms and not for a cure? Palliative
What type of surgery is done to remove all of the cancer and hopefully cure the patient? specific or curative
What type of surgery is done to prevent the development of cancer? preventive
What are some side effects of radiation therapy hair loss, redness of skin, nausea, vomiting
What type of therapy for cancer is aimed at enhancing the immune system's response immunotherapy
what type of therapy for cancer works by adding, or blocking or removing hormones hormonal therapy
A bilateral, symmetrical, non progressive paralysis resulting from developmental defects of the brain or trauma at birth is Cerebral palsy
List some s/s of spastic cerebral palsy hyperactive reflexes, rapid muscle contractions (looks like their having a seizure), muscle weakness, don't act their age
The etiology of CP include maternal Rubella (German measles), maternal diabetes, anoxia (absence of oxygen), toxemia (pregnancy induced hypertension
What is the cure for CP None, treatment is directed toward helping children overcome any functional or intellectual disabilities, botox may be used
List some preventions of CP early prenatal care, good maternal health
how is Sickle cell anemia transmitted hereditary
What are some S/S of Sickle cell anemia? all individuals are anemic, attacks of intense pain in the arms, legs & abdomen, jaundice
How may sickle cell anemia be treated no cure, symptomatic, analgesics, HYDRATION, bone marrow transplant, chronic transfusions may be ordered & are useful in decreasing the severity of the disease
What is the most common but least severe type of spina bifida spina bifida occulta
what is the most severe type of nural tube defects (defects of the spine) Myelomeningocele
list the 3 Neural tube defects Spina bifida, meningocele, myelomeningocele
How can NTD's possibly be prevented folic acid, & genetic counseling
define hydrocephalus too much cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain. It is congenital if it occurs before the cranial sutures have fused
what is the treatment of hydrocephalus A shunt is usually placed from the affected ventricles of the brain into the peritoneal cavity or into the right atrium of the heart
prevention of hydrocephalus is regular prenatal care, protect infants and children from head injury
What happens to the anatomy in Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea that are normally two separate canals. (liquid is passed into the lungs instead of the stomach
what happens to the anatomy in Esophageal atresia the esophagus does not form completely-one connected to the throat, the other to the stomach. (infants food cannot get to the stomach
what are some of the S/S of TEF frothy white bubbles in the mouth, vomiting, coughing or choking when feeding, cyanosis, difficulty breathing
how may TEF and esophageal atresia be treated surgery. until surgery can be preformed the baby is fed through a stomach tube
What is the classic symptom of pyloric stenosis projectile vomiting 3'-4'
what procedures might be done to diagnose pyloric stenosis history and examination, (GI) xray, lab test (used to detect dehydration and electrolyte imbalances
describe what occurs to the anatomy in malrotation with volculus
what are the S/S of the malrotation abdominal pain causing the infant to draw up legs, vomiting bile, swollen abdomen, tachycardia, bloody stools
how may malrotation and volvulus be treated surgery to untwist the intestine asap,a portion of the intestine may have to be removed if major dmg
Inadequate intestinal motility causing obstruction and dilation of the colon with feces can cause what condition Hirschsprung disease (congenital aganglionic megacolon
Hirschsprung's disease is usually diagnosed when infancy or early childhood
what medical treatment might be tried for the treatment of hirschsprung's disease
what is an omphalocele a birth defect where the intestines or other abdominal organs poke out the navel when the abdominal wall does not close properly
what is the treatment for omphalocele surgery
Cryptorchidism is descended testes (failure of 1 or both testes to descend)
what test is done to confirm cryptorchidism serum gonadotropin test
how is hirschsprung's disease diagnosed rectal biopsy, in older infants or children a barium enema xray
Another name for talipes is clubfoot
what is the treatment of talipes simple manipulation and casting (may be repeated several times), corrective surgery may be required,
how many basic types of talipes are there 4
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - a congenital disorder characterized by progressive wasting of of the skeletal muscles
what is the etiology of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy X-linked recessive disorder
S/S of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy fatique, waddling gait, toe-walking,
treatment options of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy orthopedics appliances, excercise, PT, surgery
what is the prognosis for a patient w Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy children are usually confined to a wheel chair by age 9-12 yrs, within 10-15 yrs of onset death commonly results from cardiac or respiratory complications
Cystic Fibrosis is a congenital disorder of the exocrine glands
If both parents carry are carriers of CF , the child has what % chance of having the disease 25%
list the fatal complications of CF respiratory complications including pneumonia, emphysema, and collapsed lung (atelectasis)
treatment for Phenylketonuria (PKU) consist of what kind of diet a protein-restrictive diet
What are some S/S of down syndrome head is smaller and abnormally shaped, inner corner of eyes is rounded, ears and mouth are small
whats another name for down syndrome Trisomy 21
how can down syndrome be diagnosed physical appearance, blood test
what causes fetal alcohol syndrome (FASD) dependance & addiction of the mother and drinking alcohol while pregnant
S/S of FASD growth deficiencies, CNS difficulties, hyperactive behavior
a disorder of the nervous system that causes a person to make repeated involuntary sounds or tics is called tourette syndrome
S/S of Tourette facial tics, arm thrusting, throat clearing,eye blinking
how is tourette diagnosed tics must begin prior to 1 year of age, tics must occur nearly everyday, several times a day for a year, no other brain problems,both motor and vocal tics must be present
list some treatment options for tourette if symptoms are mild, there may be no treatment, antipsychotic meds may be used to lessen the symptoms
Created by: jhowe2323