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Impaired consciousness implies damage to 1. brainstem reticular formation 2. bilateral thalami or 3. bilateral cerebral hemispheres
If immediate recall is intact, but patient has difficulty after 1-5 minute delay, what structures may be damaged? limbic structures in the medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon
What is apraxia inability to execute a motor command that is not due to a primary motor deficit or language impairement
What is the grading for a normal deep tendon reflex? 2+ is normal, 3+ is brisk
What are the spinal nerve roots involved: 1. abdominal cutaneous reflex above umbilical 2. Cremasteric 3. Bulbocavernosus 4. Anal wink 1. T8-T10 2. L1-L2 3. S2-S4 4. S2-S4
Where is the cerebellar lesion: 1. Dysmetria on finger-nose-finger test or heel-shin test 2. Unsteady gait 1. appendicular ataxia from lesion of cerebellar hemisphere 2. cerebellar vermis
What brain lesion results in bilateral small but responsive pupils pontine lesions
How do you test brainstem dysfunction in a comatose patient? 1. doll's eyes indicate dysfunction 2. Calorics (COWS indicates intact brainstem)
1. What is Lhermette's sign? 2. What condition is it seen? 1. bending head forward elicits sharp pain 2. Arnold-Chiari