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Pertussis Dugan

Pertussis, Dugan, 1/22/13

Classic symptoms of pertussis in children Spasms of productive coughing followed by characteristic whoop (paraxysmal cough) cyanosis, vomiting, convulsions, death
Classic symptoms of pertussis is adults Mild respiratory symptoms ("100 day cough")
Pertussis is spread by Droplet nuclei released by coughing of infected individuals
Pertussis cases dropped after WWII due to the DTP vaccination
Why is pertussis on the rise now? It isn't, the labs are just getting better at detecting it
Bordetella pertusis characteristics Small, Gram neg, coccobacilli, Catalase positive, oxidase positive, nonmotile, aerobes
Virulence factors produced by Bordatella pertusis Pertussis toxin, Adenylate cyclase toxin/hemolysin, Tracheal cytotoxin, Endotoxin
Pertussis toxin does what Impairs neutrophyl chemotaxis, lymphocyte promoting factor and activates insulin
Adenylate cyclase toxin/hymolysin does what Causes ATP to cAMP which causes lysis of RBC's and increases capillary permeability
Tracheal cytotoxin kills Ciliated epithelial cells
Endotoxin does what Elicits fever, activates complement, activates macrophages, etc.
An infection is initiated when Bordetella pertussis binds to Ciliated epithelial cells which eventually die due to interference in ciliary activity
Three stages of Pertussis Catarrhal, paraxysmal, convalescent
In which phase in Pertussis most communicable? Catarrhal
Which phase presents with relatively nonspecific sympots of rhinorrhea, malaise, and mild fever with a dry, nonproductive cough Cararrhal
How long does the Paroxysmal phase normally last 4-6 weeks
tThe white blood cell count in the Paroxysmal phase is Very high (>40,000) due to lymphocytosis
Collection of Pertussis is done by Inserting tiny nasal prob swab to the posterior nasopharynx
Which medium is used to isolate pertussis Regan-Lowe medium
Pertussis colonies appear Shiny, white-gray, slow growing (48-72 hours)
Pertussis is ID with Fluorescent antibody stains
Treatment of pertussis in the catarrhal stage Azithromycin
Is treatment effective when given during or after the paroxysmal stage? No
What is the Tdap shot? Tdap shot is formulated for adolescents and adults and recommended by CDC in 2005. Tdap has a reduced diphtheria toxoid formulation.
Created by: mcasto