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LOM Chapter 2

Language of Medicine 7th Edition - Chapter 2 Terminology

anabolism Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
cell membrane Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
chromosomes Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contains regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
cytoplasm All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
DNA Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
genes Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
karyotype Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
metabolism The total of the chemical process in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
nucleus Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
cell The fundamental unit of all living things (animal or plant). Cells are everywhere in the human body--every tissue, every organ is made up of these individual units.
ribosomes Small granules that help the cell make proteins.
adipose tissue Collection of fat cells.
cartilage Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. For example, it surrounds the trachea and forms part of the external ear and nose.
epithelial cell Skins cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs.
histologist Specialist in the study of tissues.
larynx Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.
pharynx Throat. The pharynx is the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).
pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
thyroid gland Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
trachea Windpipe (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes).
ureter One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. Spelling clue: Ureter has two e's and there are two of them.
urethra Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Spelling clue: Urethra has one e and there is only one urethra.
uterus The womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops.
viscera Internal organs.
abdominal cavity Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abomen.
cranial cavity Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull.
diaphragm Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavaties.
dorsal (posterior) Pertaining to the back.
mediastinum Centrally located space between the lungs.
pelvic cavity Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the hip bone, which surrounds the pelvic cavity.
peritoneum Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
pleura A double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity Space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung.
spinal cavity Space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal cord. Also called the spinal canal.
thoracic cavity Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
ventral (anterior) Pertaining to the front.
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartilage (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side and back betwen the ribs and pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/o hip, pelvic cavity
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebrae, backbone
viscer/o internal organs
ana- up
cata- down
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
hypochondriac Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs.
epigastric upper middle region above the stomach
lumbar middle right and left regions near the waist
umbilical Central region near the navel.
inguinal Lower right and left regions near the groin. Also called iliac region.
hypogastric Lower middle region below the umbilical region.
RUQ right upper quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
RLQ right lower quadrant
LLQ left lower quadrant
cervical region neck region (C1 - C7)
thoracic region chest region (T1 - T12)
lumbar region Loin (waist) region (L1 - L5)
sacral region region of the coccyx (tailbone)
vertebra a single backbone
vertebrae backbones
spinal column bone tissues surrounding the spinal cavity
spinal cord nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
disk (disc) A pad of cartilage between vertebrae
anterior (ventral) front side of the body
deep away from the surface
distal Far from the point of attachment fo the truck or far from the beginning of a structure.
frontal (coronal) plane Vertical plane dividing the body of structure into anterior and posterior portions.
inferior (caudal) below another structure
lateral pertaining to the side
medial pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.
posterior (dorsal) back side of the body
prone Lying on the belly (face down, palm down)
proximal near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of the structure
superficial on the surface
superior (cephalic) above another structure
supine Lying on the back (face up, palm up)
transverse (cross-sectional or axial plane) Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
sagittal (lateral) plane Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. The midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves.
Created by: groffja