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Pulmonary circ

Pulmonary circulation- 1/14/2013- CJ

Pulmonary circulation is used to Transport deoxygenated hypercarbic blood to the lungs and to transport oxygenated blood to the left ventricle
The pulmonary circulation receive what percent of cardiac output 100%! (5L/min)
Flow of blood leaving heart into pulmonary circulation Pulmonary artery- Branch with airways- Mesh of capillaries at respiratory bronchioles- Pulmonary venules- Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary circulation flow is (high/low) High
Pulmonary circulation pressure is (high/low) Low
Normal pulmonary flow value 5 L/min
Normal pulmonary pressure value 15 mmHg
Walls of the pulmonary arteries contain little smooth muscle because They do not need to redirect blood, only distribute it to produce a thin film
The work required by the right ventricle is Low
Pulmonary capillaries are exposed to alveolar pressure which can cause capillaries to be __ or__ Distended or compressed
When the alveolar pressure is greater than the internal capillary pressure, the capillary is Compressed
When alveolar pressure is less than internal capillary pressure, the capillary is Distended
Inspiration does what to the pulmonary arteries and veins (extra-alveolar vessels) Pulls them open ("Radial traction")
Extra-alveolar vessel diameter is determined by Lung volume
Define Caliber Diameter of vessel
Alveolar vessel caliber is determined by Balance between internal and alveolar pressures
Pulmonary resistance is calculated as 1/10th of the systemic vascular resistance
Pulmonary resistance equation (Pressure in pulmonary artery-Pressure in left atrium)/ Flow
Pulmonary vascular resistance decreases with and increase in Arterial or venous pressure
An increase in cardiac output does what to Pulmonary arterial pressure Increases
An increase in cardiac output does what to pulmonary vascular resistance? Decreases
An increase in pulmonary pressure does what do pulmonary vascular resistance Decreases **THIS IS AN EXCEPTION TO OHMS LAW***
If cardiac output decreases, pulmonary pressure decreases and pulmonary resistance ___ Increases
What is the explanation for reduced pulmonary vascular resistance with an increase in pulmonary pressure? Recruitment and distention of capillaries
Explain the concept of "recruitment and distension" Normally, not all capillaries are open and conductive to blood. When the Pulmonary pressure increases, capillaries become distended and more capillaries are recruited for use
Extra-aveolar vessles include Pulmonary veins and arteries
Pulmonary vascular resistance increases at _____ lung volumes Low and high
What causes high resistance at residual volume At RV, there is no compression of pulmonary capillaries by alveolar pressure but little radial traction and smooth muscle/elastin in extra-alveolar vessels keeps caliber low so the resistance is high
What causes high resistance at total lung capacity Extra-alveolar vessels are stretched open by traction but pulmonary capillaries are narrowed by alveolar pressure so the resistance is high
Explain why pulmonary vascular resistance is lowest at functional residual capacity? (when lungs are "medium") Radial traction to open extra-alveolar vessels is present but not enough to compress the pulmonary capillaries
Pulmonary blood from is the greatest at the Lung base
The difference in pulmonary blood from from top to bottom is due to Gravity and hydrostatic pressure
The pulmonary arterior pressure is greatest at the Base of the lung
Blood flow increases from __ to ___ Apex to base
Hydrostatic pressure in the apex of the lung causes capillaries to be Compressed
Hydrostatic pressure in the base of the lung causes capillaries to be Distended
Pulmonary vasoconstriction occurs in Hypoxia
As the Po2 decreases, blood flow __ because of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction Decreases
___ channels in the smooth muscle close and cause depolarization and in increase in vascular tone Oxygen sensitive potassium channels
After Potassium channels close, depolarization causes ___ channels to open which increase tone and decrease blood flow Calcium
Hypoxic vasoconstriction directs blood away from Under-ventilated areas
When can hypoxic vasoconstriction be dangerous? When the whole lung is hypoxic
Explain what happens when the whole lung becomes hypoxic Vasoconstriction occurs in all of the pulmonary vessels which causes blood to back up into the pulmonary arteries. This causes hypertension which leads to pulmonary edema and eventually to right side heart failure
Name two situations that would make hypoxic vasoconstriction dangerous COPD and high altitude
Water in the alveoli does what to surface tension Increases
Water in the alveoli does what to compliance Decreases
Water in the aveoli does what for the diffusion pathway for oxygen? Increases
Which forces act to keep water IN the capillaries? Net colloid osmotic pressure and alveolar pressure
Which forces act to push water OUT of the capillaries? Net hydrostatic pressure and surface tension (which is an attractive force between water molecules and the capillary walls)
Fluids that leak out of capillaries enter the intersitum and drain through the Lymph channels in the perivascular space
If lymphatics are engorged or blocked, fluid enters the Alveoli and creates edema
Early edema is due to The engorgement of the interstitial space
Late edema is due to Fluid in the alveoli
Causes of pulmonary hypertension Increased left atrial pressure, increased pulmonary blood flow, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance
Changes in starling forcecs or pulmonary capillary permeability can cause Interstitial and alveolar edema in the lungs
A blood clot in the lungs will do what to Dead space and overall pulmonary resistance? Increase both
Created by: mcasto