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Nissing Micro Ch1

Micro Ch1 A Brief History of Microbiology

Study of organisms too small to be seen with human eye Micorbiology
Study of fungus mycology
Study of parasites Parasitology
Guy who discovered microbes, called them animalcules Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Prokaryotes Bacteria, Archaea - no nucleus, unicelular, smaller than eukaryotes, reproduce asexually
Eukaryotes Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, - have membrane-bound nucleus
Carolus Linnaeus' taxonomic system had 3 kingdoms, what are they? Plants, animals, minerals (which isn't a current kingdom since minerals aren't alive)
Bacteria and Archaea have different cell walls. What co Bacterial walls contain? Peptidoglycan
Multicellular fungi that grow as long filaments and reproduce by sexual and asexual spores Molds (multi molds, uni yeasts)
Unicellular fungi, reproduce by budding or sexual spores Yeast (multi molds, uni yeasts)
Eukaryote with chitin cell wall, include yeasts and molds Fungi
Unicellular Eukaryote similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular structure, live freely in water or animal hosts, most reproduce by asexual but can reproduce sexually, most capable of locomotion Protozoa
means "fake feet" means of protozoan locomotion where extensions of the cell flow in the direction of travel Pseudopodia
Tiny hair like fillaments that cover a cell and beat rhythmically to propel it through its environment cilia
Tail or whip-like projection(s) used for locomotion Flagella
Can be unicellular or multicellular, photosynthetic Algae
How are algaes categorized? pigmentation, storage products, composition of cell wall
What are 2 types of algae cell wall? celulose, silica,
Anamalia included in microbiology - worms Helminths
Obligate Intracellular Parasites Virus. Means they need a host to replicate, and are inactive outside of the host.
Who proposed spontaneous generation? Aristotle (380 BC)
Whose experiments with jars of meat invalidated the concept of spontaneous generation? Francesco Redi (1680)
This scientist "proved" that bacteria could spontaneously generate by work with boiled broths, indicating that "life force" generated microscopic creatures. John T. Needham (1760)
This scientist killed endospores by boiling broths hotter and longer, sealed vials tightly, and disputed bacterial spontaneous generation Lazzaro Spallanzani (1799)
This man had "swan neck" flasks to disprove spontaneous generation Louis Pasteur
Who created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax? Louis Pasteur
List the steps of the Scientific Method Observe - Question - Hypothesize - Test - Accept/Reject/Modify Hypothesis
Who developed the Germ theory of disease? Louis Pasteur
What are Koch's Postulates? (4) The agent must be in all the sick people and none of the well. It must be grown in a lab. It must infect healthy host. It must be found in the infected house.
Who first used Petri dishes? Robert Koch, named the dishes after his assistant Petri
Who was the first to see bacteria as distinct species? Robert Koch, who innitially worked with Anthrax because it's such a large microbe
Who first pushed handwashing to prevent disease? Ignaz Semmelweis
Who first used antiseptic technique (cleaning inatimate objects with antiseptic) Josept Lister
Who dramatically broadened clean techniques in hospitals and healthcare? Florence Nightengale
What two types of microbe are prokaryotic? Bacteria and Archaea
Another word for "spontaneous generation" abiogenesis (a=without, bio=life, genesis=creation, ie, creation without life)
Which 3 scientists worked to disprove abiogenesis? Redi (meat), Spallanzani (boil longer, hotter, and seal tightly), and Pasteur (swan-necked flasks)
Which scientist is credited with determining that bacteria ferment sugars into acids and yeasts ferment sugars into alcohol. Louis Pasteur
What does facultative anaerobe mean? Give an example. Organisms that can live with or without oxygen, like yeasts
Louis Pasteur began a field in which microbes are intentionally used to manufacture products. What is this field called? Industrial microbiology or biotechnology
What is pasteurization? Heating a product enough to eliminate the bacteria you don't want. For example, in wine eliminating acid-forming bacteria, in milk or juice eliminating pathogens.
By demonstrating that live cells are not required for fermentation but that enzymes could be used, this scientist began the fields of biochemistry and metabolism. Eduard Buchner (1897)
Term meaning the study of causation of disease etiology
Which scientist is famous for dominating investigations into etiology? Robert Koch
Which scientist first stained bacteria cells and flagella for better viewing? Robert Koch (1877)
Who first photographed bacteria? Robert Koch
Are Koch's postulates always useful in proving the cause of a given disease? No. Some diseases are genetic (Alzheimer's), some are viral and cannot be grown outside of cells, etc.
Who first used the term virus, and what was he referring to? Martinus Beijerinck, tobacco mosaic virus, which he called filterable virus because they could slip through pores bacteria couldn't
Who developed a procedure of dying microbes using a series of dyes which leave some purple and others pink? Hans Christian Gram (1884)
A Gram-positive microbe will be dyed what color? Purple (both pick up pink, only positive also picks up blue)
A Gram-negative microbe will be dyed what color? Pink
Term describing infections acquired in a healthcare setting Nosocimial infection (now usually Healthcare Acquired Infection, or HAI)
This physician discovered that antepartum mortality was 20% higher after medical students carried "cadaver particles" from autopsy studies to assist in childbirth Ignaz Semmelweis (1848)
Semmelweis was ridiculed and forced to leave his hospital for requiring medical students to do this after handling cadavers. Wash hands
This surgeon advanced the idea of antisepsis by spraying wounds, incisions, and dressings with carbolic acid (phenol) Joseph Lister (~1900) think antiseptic listerine to remember
This nurse was dedicated to cleanliness and documented statistical comparisons to substantiate her claim that poor food and unsanitary conditions in hospitals caused death. Florence Nightingale (~1855)
Through his work in mapping the occurence of cholera in contaminated water and documentation of its spread, this doctor founded infection control and epidemiology. John Snow (~1840)
This term refers to the study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease in humans. Epidemiology - think epidemic-ology, or the study of epidemics
This unethical doctor first vaccinated people against fatal smallpox with harmless cowpox. Edward Jenner (1796)
This scientist produced vaccines using weakened strains of cholera, anthrax, and rabies. Louis Pasteur
This scientist is credited with beginning the field of immunology Edward Jenner
This microbiologist believed that if different microbes were susceptible to different dyes, perhaps they were susceptible to different chemicals Paul Ehrlich
The branch of medical microbiology that focuses on creating "magic bullets" that destroy pathogens while remaining nontoxic to humans Chemotherapy
The Golden Age of Microbiology focused on what 4 issues? 1) disproving abiogenesis, 2) Bacterial causation of fermentation, 3) Microbial causation of disease, 4) Disease control, prevention, and cure
This term refers to the study of metabolism Biochemistry
This term refers to the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms Metabolism
Which 2 scientists are credited with pioneering biochemistry? Buchner with enzymes, pasteur with fermentation
Which scientist proposed that basic biochemical reactions (transfer of electrons and Hydrogen ions) are shared by all living things, not just microbes? Albert Kluyver (Early 1900's)
Molecular biology, recombinant DNA technology, and gene therapy are all part of what field? genetics
This field combines aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to explain cell function on the molecular level Molecular biology
Gene sequencing allowed Carl Woese to discover differences significant enough to divide prokaryotes into what 2 groups, creating a total of 3 major groups of organism? Archaea and Bacteria (the third group would be eukaryotes)
Gene sequencing allowed scientists to discover that cat scratch fever couldn't be cultured for what reason? Its RNA is different from all other known RNA sequences
What's the common term for recombinant DNA technology, which is manipulating genes for practical applications? Genetic engineering
The most famous example of recombinant DNA technology is the one where E. coli is used to manufacture what? human blood clotting factor, used by hemophiliacs without fear of contamination
Name the controversial field of recombinant DNA technology involving inserting missing or replacing defective genes in a human cell. Gene Therapy
Beijerinck (the virus guy) and Winogradsky discovered that bacteria convert Nitrogen into nitrate, usable by plants, and recycle sulfur, key aspects to what field of microbiology? Environmental microbiology
What are some steps people take to limit the abundance of pathogenic microbes and control their spread in the environment? sewage treatment, water purification, disinfection, pasteurization, sterilization
Kitasato and vonBehring reported the existence of chemicals and cells that fight infection in human blood. This developed into what 2 fields? Serology, study of blood serum & chemicals in the serum that fight disease, and immunology, the study of body's defense against specific pathogens
Who discovered penicillin? Alexander Flemming (1929)
Who discovered sulfa drugs? Gerhard Domagk (1935)
Name 2 prokaryotic microorganisms Bacteria, Archaea
Which scientist first hypothesized that a bacterial colony could arise from a single bacterial cell? Robert Koch
Which scientist first hypothesized that medical personnel can infect patients with pathogens through poor hygiene techniques? Ignaz Semmelweis
Name the scientist who "disproved" spontaneous generation through work with heated broths? Needham
The study of the role of microbes in the environment is called Environmental microbiology
Name the 2 scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of environmental microbiology. Beijerinck and Winogradsky
Name the 2 scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of Biochemistry. Pasteur and Buchner
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of Chemotherapy. Ehrlich
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of Immunology. Jenner
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of infection control. Snow
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of etiology (causes of disease). Koch
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of epidemiology (study of occurrence, distribution, spread and pattern of disease) Snow
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of Pasteur
Name the scientist whose investigations made the biggest moves toward beginning the study of Pasteur
Microbial geneticists who established that a gene's activity is related to the specific protein coded by the gene George Beadle and Edward Tatum (1958)
who studied the microbial recycling of sulfur in the environment Winogradsky
Who studied the nitrogen cycle in bacteria. Beijerinck
Who proposed that gene sequences could help us understand evolutionary relationships including evolutionary and taxonomic categories Pauling
Who was the first to suggest that "germs of contagion" cause disease? Girolamo Fracastoro 1546
Term meaning the use of microbes to remove pollutants from the environment Bioremediation
Created by: jenissing