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Geography

Geography(soil)

QuestionAnswer
What is the study of soil known as? Pedology
Soil is made up of a number of elements and ingredients, what are they? Mineral matter(rock particles), humus,air,water and living organisims
What are rock particles? Pieces of rock resulting from the processes of weathering and erosion
What is humus? What forms when plants and animals decay and rot. It provides food for living organisms in the soil. The darker the soil the more humus present
What is air? Air contains oxygen and nitrogen, which are vital to a plant life
What is water? Water can make up 25% of soil composition. Water carries dissolved minerals or nutrients to the roots of plants
What are living organisms? Micro-organisms (such as earthworms,woodlice and millipedes) help to break down dead plant matter to form humus
What is soil profile? A cross-section of the soil which reveals layers called horizons
What are the horizons? O horizon(plant litter) A horizon(topsoil) B horizon(subsoil) C horizon(bedrock)
What is the A Horizon(topsoil)? The upper layer of the soil,it contains humus and so is dark in colour. Leaching and hardpan can occur here
What is leaching? In wet conditions,when minerals are washed downwards
What is hardpan? The outcome of leached material. This is an impermeable(water cannont flow through it) layer and the soil may become waterlogged
What is the B Horizon(subsoil) It contains less humus and so is light in colour. It is more stony that A horizon
What is the C Horizon? The bedrock or parent material of the soil
What are the factors that influence soil formation? Climate,parent material, vegetation,living organisms,water and time
What are the characteristics of sandy soils? dry,light and gritty. They are also 70% sand
Brown earth soils are found in Ireland, what are the characteristics of brown earth soils? O Horizon(Deciduous trees) A Horizon(humus,little leaching,dark) B Horizon(less humus,lighter brown) C Horizon(parent material)
What is the study of soil known as? Pedology
Soil is made up of a number of elements and ingredients, what are they? Mineral matter(rock particles), humus,air,water and living organisims
What are rock particles? Pieces of rock resulting from the processes of weathering and erosion
What is humus? What forms when plants and animals decay and rot. It provides food for living organisms in the soil. The darker the soil the more humus present
What is air? Air contains oxygen and nitrogen, which are vital to a plant life
What is water? Water can make up 25% of soil composition. Water carries dissolved minerals or nutrients to the roots of plants
What are living organisms? Micro-organisms (such as earthworms,woodlice and millipedes) help to break down dead plant matter to form humus
What is soil profile? A cross-section of the soil which reveals layers called horizons
What are the horizons? O horizon(plant litter) A horizon(topsoil) B horizon(subsoil) C horizon(bedrock)
What is the A Horizon(topsoil)? The upper layer of the soil,it contains humus and so is dark in colour. Leaching and hardpan can occur here
What is leaching? In wet conditions,when minerals are washed downwards
What is hardpan? The outcome of leached material. This is an impermeable(water cannont flow through it) layer and the soil may become waterlogged
What is the B Horizon(subsoil) It contains less humus and so is light in colour. It is more stony that A horizon
What is the C Horizon? The bedrock or parent material of the soil
What are the factors that influence soil formation? Climate,parent material, vegetation,living organisms,water and time
What are the characteristics of sandy soils? dry,light and gritty. They are also 70% sand
Brown earth soils are found in Ireland, what are the characteristics of brown earth soils? O Horizon(Deciduous trees) A Horizon(humus,little leaching,dark) B Horizon(less humus,lighter brown) C Horizon(parent material)
Peat earth soils are found in Ireland,what are the characteristics of brown earth soils? O Horizon(coniferous trees) A Horizon(organic and mineral matter,dark colour,large amount of water) B horizon(grey colour,little air,few organisms) C Horizon(impermeable rock)
What is overcropping? Planting of the same crop in the same area of land area time after time
What monocultre? Farming of a single crop
Created by: Chimozukee