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History(The reformation)

What was the reformation? The reformation began in the 16th century and was a protest at abuses in the Catholic church
List three causes of the reformaton Wealth of the church,abuses in the church,influence on the renaissance,the power of kings,the printing press
How the the wealth of the church cause the reformation? By 1500 the Catholic church was extremely wealthy, this made people especially kings jealous
What led to the abuses in the Catholic church? The wealth of the church
Name the abuses in the church Nepotism,simony, pluralism and absentisim
What was nepotism? When relations of the nobles,cardinals and bishops were appointed to the church offices or positions
What was simony? When church positions were bought or sold
What was pluralism? When a cardinal or bishop owned more than one diocese
What was absenteeism? When cardinals or bishops with more than on diocese could only live in one of them and so were absent from the others
What other issues were there within the church that caused people great concern? Some priests were uneducated and could not read the bible,popes,cardinals and bishops behaved like royalty,some clergymen lived openly with women even though the had taken the oath of celbiacy
How did the influence of the renaissance have an impact on the reformation? The renaissance encouraged people to question everything including religion,scholars could now read the Bible in its original Hebrew and this led many to feel that the church were worshiping what was not laid down by Christ and his followers
How did the printing press influence the reformation? The invention of printing caused the spread of new ideas,some ideas were critical of the church
How did the power of the kings influence the reformation> Kings ruled their lands and wanted to rule the Catholic church in the same way
Who was Martin Luther? A religious refromer
When and where was Martin Luther born? Germany, 1483
What did Martin Luther originally want to be and what did he change he mind to be? A lawyer,instead he joined the Augustian order to be a monk and a priest
After joining the Augustian order what did Luther then do? He became a professor or theology
What was Luther very concerned about? His salvation(going to heaven)
When he studied the Bible what did he found out? Explain He found out that there was justification by faith. This meant a person could only get into heaven by belief and faith in God,doing good deeds,praying to saints,going on pilgrimages and giving indulgences would not get you a place in heaven
Who came to Wittenberg in 1517? John Tetzel?
Who was John Tetzel? A Dominican friar who was given permission by the pope to sell indugences
What were indulgences? The selling of pardons for ones sins to get into heaven
What were these indulgences used for? Half of the money earned would go towards the building of St.Peters basilica in Rome, the other half would go to pay back a huge loan used by the bishoprics
Luther objected to Tetzels preching, what did he do? He wrote his 95 theses(95 arguments) against the sale of indulgences and nailed them to the door of Wittenberg castle
What language did Luther write he theses in and why? Latin(The language of scholars) and so he could discuss his beliefs with other learning people
What were some of Luther's arguments? 3. The pope had no power to let people escape the punishments,they must face their sins 21.Indulgences do not save people from their sins. 83. Why is the rich pope not paying for the Basillica himself instead of taking it from poor believers?
What later happened to Luther's 95 theses? They were translated into German(the vernacular) and printed and spread all over Germany and Europe
The pope did not like Luther's 95 theses, who did he order him to meet Cardinal Cajetan,who tried to persuade Luther to change his views
When Luther did not change his views,what happened? A public debate was held for him and John Eck(A theologian),the pope later sent a papal bull stating that if Luther didnt change his views he would be excommunicated from the Catholic church. He was excommunicated
Who was the pope at the time of the reformation? Pope Leo X
Who did the pope want to deal with Luther? Charles V, the holy Roman emperor. He was the defender of the Christian faith and would go to war to protect it
What did the holy Roman emperor do? In 1521 he called a diet(parliament)of the German princes and rulers to meet at Worms near Mainz( The diet of Worms)
What Luther refused to withdraw his teachings at the Diet of Worms, what did he say? " Unless i am proven wrong by the Bible and plain reason i cannot and will not go back on anything "
After Luther left the Diet of Worms,what did Charles V do? He issued and Edict of Worms
What was the Edict of Worms? When Charles V issued that Luther should be taken by whatever force necessary and so should his followers. Take Luther prisoner and give his followers no mercy
On the way from the Diet what happened to Luther? He was captured?
Who captured Luther? Fredrick the wise, ruler of Saxony who was a supporter of Luther and captured him for his protection
What did Luther do while in Fredrick's castle? He translated the new testament into German. Now ordinary Germans could the teachings of the Bible for themselves
What were Martin Luther's six beliefs? The Bible should be used to find out about God.Salvation is by faith alone.Only two sacraments(Baptism and Eucharist).Any Christian can be a clergyman and the clergy cannot marry.The king or prince was the head of the church.Church services in vernacular
how did Lutherisim spread? Many princes had become Lutherists and protested that they had a right to practice their religion in their states. This is how they got the name protestants
What was the Peace of Augsberg? When a civil and religious war broke out in Germany it lasted for 9 years. In 1555 the Peace of Augsberg settled the matter,each prince or ruler of each area was to decide the religion of that area or state
What were the results of the reformation? Germany became divided along religious lines. The use of the vernacular became important in the delivery of religious ideas and services.Literacy and education spread because people were able to access the bible in their own language
John Calvin was another reformer, he lived in France in 1509. What were some of his beliefs? God selected those going to heaven(the elect) This was called predestination. The Bible was the only source of spreading the word of God. There were only 2 sacraments(Eucharist and Baptism.Geneva was the city of God, Rome was the city of the devil
List three of John Calvin's rules Drunkers were not allowed in the kingdom of God, 3 strikes and you were out. Anyone who sang immoral or outrageous songs would go to jail. Anyone who danced was sent to jail
What did the pope name Henry VIII? Defender of faith
When Arthur,Henry's older brother died what is Henry VIII have to do? Marry his brothers widow ,Catherine of Aragon,daughter of King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
When Henry began to admire Anne Boleyn what did he ask the pope to do? Annul his marriage with Catherine of Agaron. The pope would not grant the annulment
Since the pope would not grant Henry the annulment what did Henry do? He appointed Themas Cranmer as the Archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer granted Henry the annulment.Henry married Anne Boleyn
What were the consciences of Henry's actions? The pope excommunicated him
What was the Act of Supermacy? When Henry called a meeting of parliament where they passed a law, making Henry or any monarch the head of the church in England
What happened to people who refused to take the oath of supermacy?(agreeing Henry as the head of the church) They were punished by beheading. A famous person to beheaded for not taking the oath of supermacy was Thomas More
When Henry came to power in the church what did he do? Closed monasteries and confiscated their lands and made them crown property. He did not make the Bible into the vernaacular
When and where was Henry born? 28 June 1491, Greenwich
Henry had six wives, name each of them Catherine of Aragon(divorced). Anne Boleyn(executed). Jane Seymour(died at childbirth). Anne of cleves(divorced). Catherine Howard(executed). Catherine Parr(Outlived him)
What were the results of the reformation in England? The monarchs became the head of the church. The parliament became more powerful than the monarchs. England was united under one crown when the Spanish Armada attacked
How did the reformation go in Ireland? It failed. Although Ireland was a part of England protestarianism failed.Irish people thought that it was just another way for England to try and control Ireland,also the vernacular in Ireland was Irish and no attempts were made to use to bible in English
What was the counter reformation? The Catholics churches way of combatting the loss of followers
What were the most important elements of the counter reformation? The council of Trent, Establishment of new religious orders and the court of inquisition
What was the council of Trent? (1545-1563)The meeting of cardinals and bishops to reform the Catholic church. The met in Northern Italy
What were the results of the council of Trent? The Catholic religion remained the most important religion in Europe.There were greater divisions between Catholics and Protestants leading to religious wars
What were the Jesuits? Founded by St. Ignatius Loyola,an order that was set up to promote catholisim.
What was the court of inquisition? A catholic court where heretics(anyone who believed different to the catholic church) were tied,tortured and often killed in an effort to spread new ideas.
Created by: Chimozukee