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Chem Theory

What are fats called when they are combined with proteins? Lipoproteins
What is VLDL? Very low density lipoprotein- Carries lipids to tissues
What is HDL? High density lipoprotein- returns stuck pieces back to liver
What is LDL? low density lipoprotein- pieces become stuck along artery walls
What kind of cholesterol is desirable to have? HDL
How does the body rid itself of cholesterol? through bile
What does the precipitation of cholesterol in the gall bladder cause? gall stones
What does a cholesterol value of Below 200 mg/dL mean? desirable
What does a cholesterol value of 200-239 mg/dL mean? borderline
What does a cholesterol value of 240 mg/dL and above mean? high risk- correlated to Coronary artery disease (CAD)
What ratio is used to predict the risk of a person getting clogged arteries? Total/ HDL less than or = 4.5
What function do enzymes play in the body? catalysts- increase rate of chemical reaction
Enzymes are which type of substance? protein
What things can denature(damage) enzymes heat, strong acid, strong base, vigorous shaking, UV radiation
How are enzymes named? 1st part is name of substrate. 2nd part ends with ase and tells what kind of reaction
Where are enzymes normally found? in intact cells.- Serum levels normally very low
What does Amylase do? digestive enzyme- breaks down starch
What disease is Amylase increased? acute/chronic pancreatitis
What does Lipase do? digestive- breaks down fats
What disease is Lipase increased? acute/chronic pancreatitis
Alkaline phosphatase is active in what pH? High pH. optimum pH 10
What disease is Alkaline phosphatase increased in? bone and liver
Acid phosphatase is active in what pH? Low pH optimum pH 5
What cancer is acid phosphatase increased in? prostatic
What diseases is SGOT/AST increased in? heart, muscle, liver, RBC
What disease is SGPT/ALT increased in? Liver
What disese is GGTP increased in? liver and pancreas
What is GT/GGT sensitive to? Alcohol- parallels ALKP
CPK is found in which tissues? heart, muscle, brain and lung
What is CPK the fastest rising in? Myocardial Infarction
What is CK1 isoenzyme and which tissue is it from? BB chain- brain and lung
What is CK2 isoenzyme and which tissue is it from? MB chain- heart- MI
What is CK3 isoenzyme and which tissue is it from? MM chain- muscle
LDH remains elevated longest in what? MI
How are isoenzymes separated? electrophoresis
Which 2 enzymes are ordered together to evaluate pancreatic function? amaylase and lipase
Which test are in a cardiac profile? CPK, Troponin I and Troponin T
Which tests are in a liver profile? ALKP, GGTP, AST, ALT and LDH
Which is the most sensitive of the liver enzymes? GGTP
What 4 things does an accurate chemical analysis depend on? 1.Proper collection 2. Preservation 3. Processing 4. Method of analysis
What is the ideal time for lab measurements to be performed? One hour
What sample is most often used for chemical analysis? Serum- fasting
What is the difference between plasma and serum? Plasma- liquid portion contains fibrinogen/ clotting factors. Serum- liquid portion W fibrinogen/clotting factors removed
What is the thixotropic gel used for? prevents shifts of substances and prevents glycolosis
What Vacutainer is used to collect serum and why? gold/red- no anticoagulant
How is a gold top tube processed? clot upright at least 30 minutes no more than 60. centrifuge at least 15 minutes within 1 hour of collection
What is a hemolyzed serum? serum or plasma that is clear red
What is Icteric hyperbilirubinemia- jaundice- serum/plasmais brownish yellow
What is lipemic? serum or plasma is milky white- may be drawn to soon after a meal
What is accuracy? true or actual value
What is precision? repeatability- ability to get the same answer again
What is batch or run? specimens analyzed at the same time
What is calibrator? used to set machine values
What is control? Must fall within an acceptable range before pt samples are run
What four things does the control check for? Everything- instrument working, strips/ control reagent, technique and environment
What is duplicate determination? 1 of specimen is measured twice. Checks persicion
What are the NPN compounds? Urea creatinine uric acid amonina creatine amino acid
What is urea the breakdown product of? Protein
What does BUN stand for? Blood urea nitrogen
What 2 things affect serum BUN? protein in diet and urine volume
What causes increased BUN in pre renal? Dehydration
What causes increased BUN in renal? glomerulonephritis- cant filter
What causes increased BUN in post renal? Kindey stones and enlarged prostate
What is azotemia? increase in NPN's in the blood, acidosis, water electrolyte imbalance and death
What does creatine and phosphocreatine break down into? creatinine- waste product
Where does creatine and phosphocreatine break down? muscle
What are two tests to assess kidney function? B1 and creatine
What is uric acid the break down product of? nucleic acids
Which foods are high in purines? meat
When is uric acid increased in the serum? gout
Where is ammonia made? bacteria in intestine
What are amino acids? building blocks of protein
What is the function of ALbumin protein fraction? maintains normal blood volume
What is the function of Fibrinogen protein fraction? necessary for clotting
What is the function of Gamma globulins protein fraction? Antibodies
What does TSP stand for? Total serum protein
What is a normal A/G ratio result? 1.0-2.5
What is electrophoresis? Used to separate protein into specific fractions by movement of charged particles in an electric field
What is glycoogen? Storage form of glucose
What is glycogenesis? Formation of glycogen from glucose
What is glycogenolysis? breakdown of glycogen to glucose
What is glycolysis? glucose changed to give energy
What is gluconeogenesis? new glucose formation
Where is glycogen made and stored? made in liver- stored in liver/muscle
Where is insulin made? made in beta cells of the islets of langerhans. in pancreas
What does insulin do? stimulates the transport of glucose through cell membrane
Where are ketone bodies made? in the liver
What are ketone bodies made from? made from excess fatty acids
What is ketoacidosis? blood pH less that 7.35 due to ketone bodies
Which type of diabetes has a tendency to get ketoacidosis? type 1
Which type of diabetes may be controlled by diet alone? Type 2
What do diabetes metabolize instead of glucose? lipids, fats, triglycerides
What is retinopathy? sclerosis- hardening of blood vessels in eye
What are some complications of diabetes? aterosclerosis CAD peripherial vascular disease poor wound healing neuropathy susceptiable to infection
What samples are taken for the OGTT? fasting, 1,2,3 hours after glucose
How is the 2 hours postprandial glucose test done? after meal
What does the Hb-A1c test measure? hemoglobin A1 combined with glucose
What is the advantage of the Hb-A1c/glycosylated hemoglobin test? reflects the blood glucose over a 3 month period. Normal is 4-6%
Created by: lecopple1