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k/b final


kinesiology the study of motion or human movement
biomechanics the study of mechanical forces as they relate to functional and anatomical analysis of biological systems
structural kinesiology the study of muscles as they are involved in the science of movement; involves skeletal and muscular structures whose sizes and shapes allow or limit movement
anatomical position standing in an upright posture, facing straight ahead, feet parallel and close, with palms facing forward; most commonly used
fundamental position standing in an upright posture, facing straight ahead, feet parallel and close, with palms facing the body and arms at the side
volar relating to the palm of the hand or sole of the foot
sagittal plane divides the body into equal, bilateral segments (right and left halves) anteroposterior plane (ap)
frontal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior segments (front and back halves) lateral or coronal plane
transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior segments in anatomical position (top and bottom halves) axial or horizontal plane
frontal axis runs medial to lateral. runs from side to side at a right angle to the sagittal plane of motion (parallel to the frontal plane of motion) coronal, lateral, or mediolateral axis flexion and extension movements
sagittal axis runs anterior to posterior. runs from front to back at a right angle to the frontal plane of motion (parallel to the sagittal plane of motion) anteroposterior axis abduction and adduction movements
vertical axis runs superior to inferior. runs straight down through top or head and is at a right angle to the transverse plane of motion long or longitudinal axis internal rotation and external rotation movements
diarthrodial joints sleevelike joint capsule that secretes synovial fluid to lubricate joint cavity synovial or freely moveable joint
ginglymus joint uniaxial articulation that allows movement in only one plane hinge joint elbow or knee
trochoid joint uniaxial articulation pivot joint
condyloid joint biaxial ball and socket joint, concave meets convex knuckle joint metacarpal-phalanx
enarthrodial joint multiaxial or triaxial ball and socket joint, round head meets concave (true) ball and socket joint hip and shoulder joints
sellar joint unique triaxial joint with reciprocally concave and convex saddle joint
circumduction circular movement that delineates an arc or describes a cone circumflexion flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
pronation internal rotation of the radius resulting in a palm-down forearm or the combination of ankle dorsiflexion, subtalar eversion and forefoot abduction
supination external rotation of the radius resulting in a palm-up forearm or the combination of plantar flexion, subtalar inversion and forefoot adduction pigeontoe
lateral flexion movement of head and or trunk laterally away from midline abduction of the spine
reduction return of spinal column to anatomical position from lateral flexion adduction of the spine
(skeletal) muscle contraction to create body and joint movements, protect, support, and produce heat
muscle action concentric contraction of muscles across a joint causing specific movement of the joint, usually by a group of muscles
muscle innervation one nerve innervates multiple muscles or parts of muscles, or more than one nerve innervates a muscle
muscle gaster the central and contractile part of a muscle muscle belly or body
muscle origin most stable attachment of a muscle; closest to midline or center of body proximal
muscle insertion most moveable attachment; farthest from midline or center of body distal
muscle cross section diameter greater size indicates greater force exertion muscle size
muscle length longer muscles can more effectively move joints through larger range of motion
parallel (muscle fiber arrangement) fibers arranged along the length of the muscle; more ROM
pennate (muscle fiber arrangement) fibers arranged obliquely, featherlike to tendon; more power
flat muscles thin and broad parallel muscles that originate from an aponeuroses spread force(s) over a broad area rectus abdominus, external obliques
fusiform muscles spindle-shaped parallel muscles that have a central belly and taper off to tendons at each end focuses power on small, bony area(s) brachialis, biceps brachii
strap muscles parallel muscles that have a uniform(ish) diameter focuses power on small, bony area(s) sartorius
radiate muscles triangular parallel muscles that originate on a broad aponeuroses and converge onto a tendon; combination of flat and fusiform arrangements pectoralis major, trapezius
sphincter muscles strap muscles arranged circularly around openings close openings during contraction orbicularis oris
unipennate muscles fibers run obliquely from a tendon on one side biceps femoris, extensor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior
bipennate muscles fibers run obliquely from both sides of a central tendon rectus femoris, flexor hallucis longus
multi-pennate muscles fibers run diagonally between several tendons, producing a weaker contraction than other pennate types deltoid
irritability sensitivity to chemical, electrical or mechanical stimuli
contractility ability to contract and develop tension against resistance when stimulated
extensibility ability to be stretched back to original length following contraction
elasticity ability to return to original length following stretching
isometric muscle contraction static contraction; muscle tension to maintain joint angle in a stable position same length prevents movement by external forces
isotonic muscle contraction dynamic contraction; muscle tension causes (or controls) joint angle change same tension
concentric contraction positive isotonic contraction; muscle shortens as it develops tension to move against resistance
eccentric contraction negative isotonic contraction; muscle lengthens under tension to control descent of resistance
isokinetic contraction dynamic exercise with isotonic contraction(s) while maintaining movement speed same motion/speed biodex, cybex, lido
CNS stimulation cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord
PNS sensory neurons afferent neurons conduct signals from receptors to the CNS afferent neurons
CNS neurons interneurons transmit between sensory neurons and CNS and CNS and motor neurons assosciation neurons
PNS motor neurons efferent neurons conduct signals from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands) efferent neurons
sarcomere smallest functional unit of muscle; made of sarcoplasm, transverse tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum
myofilament units that compose myofibrils (in sarcomere); actin and myosin
I band no myosin
A band myosin
H zone no actin
Z line actin
sarcoplasm contains stored glycogen and myoglobin
transverse tubules pathway to muscle
sarcoplasmic reticulum storage site for calcium
myosin ATPase enzyme used to cause myosin head to detach from actin filament
actin filament troponin on tropomyosin receive calcium, blocking the active site (actin)
node of ranvier allows nerve signal to jump down axon, increasing speed of transmission with saltatory conduction
all-or-none principle activated motor nerve contracts all fibers it innervates
sliding filament theory chemical process triggering the release of energy to the crossbridge of myosin and actin filaments; 11 steps
size principle an orderly recruitment of motor units related to neuron size, in which smaller units take less stimulus to activate
kinesthesis the conscious awareness of position and movement of the body in space
proprioceptors sensors that provide information about joint angle, muscle length, and tension, which is integrated to give information about the position of a limb in space muscle spindles and GTOs
proprioception subconscious mechanism by which the body is able to regulate posture and movement by responding to stimuli originating in proprioceptors of the joints, tendons, muscles and inner ear
muscle spindle monitors and controls muscle length; mostly run parallel to fibers in muscle belly myotatic reflex and reciprocal inhibition
myotatic (stretch) reflex stretching muscle contracts; an impulse is sent to the CNS after a rapid muscle stretch and the CNS activates a motor neuron of the muscle to cause it to contract knee-jerk, quick short squat before a jump`
reciprocal inhibition opposing muscle relaxes
golgi tendon organ (gto) proprioceptor in tendon near junction with muscle; protects from excessive stretch by causing muscle contraction
golgi tendon reflex an impulse is sent to CNS when gto meets stretch threshold, so the CNS sends a signal for the muscle to relax and protectively activates antagonist muscles
length - tension relationship amount of tension a muscle is capable of depends on the muscle's length before it is stimulated
mechanical advantage load divided by effort resistance/force, or (force arm length)/(resistance arm length)
levers most common machine in the body; rotate around an axis as a result of force (effort, E) being applied to cause its movement against a resistance or weight
wheel-axles rotate about an axis due to force to cause movement against resistance, but primarily to enhance ROM and speed of movement
pulleys function to change effective direction of force application
lever a rigid bar that turns about an axis of rotation or a fulcrum bones
point (f) the effort arm, where force is applied contraction at muscle insertion
point (r) the center of gravity of the lever, where external resistance is applied
axis (a) the fulcrum; the point of rotation about which the lever moves in the body joints
first class lever FAR balanced movement if A midway between F and R; ROM and speed if A is closer to F; force production if A is closer to R A closer to F: triceps in elbow extension
second class lever ARF (few in human body) force production raising the body up on the toes (plantar flexion)
third class lever AFR (most common in human body) ROM and speed elbow flexion (*brachialis)
torque force magnitude * force arm; the turning effect of an eccentric force applied to (non-)fixed axis in a direction not in line with the object's center of gravity
fixed axis contracting muscles apply eccentric force to attached bone and cause it to rotate about an axis at the joint, in a direction not in line with the object's center of rotation
force arm perpendicular distance between location of F and A. as length increases, torque increases, making it easier to move a relatively large R moment arm or torque arm
resistance arm distance between the A and the point of R application
force arm and force magnitude as FA increases, FM decreases to move constant RA and R
resistance arm and resistance resistance arm decreases as resistance increases if FM and FA are constant
resistance components and force components as RA and R increase, F and FA increase
first class levers and FA, F, RA, R FA and R are inversely proportional to F
second class levers and mechanical advantage MA increases when R is closer to A; force is more effective when R is closer to F
third class levers and point of force application (F) need more F than R because RA is longer than FA. if F is closer to A than more ROM and speed. if F is closer to R, than less force is needed
torque and lever arm lengths human system is built for ROM and speed at expense of F; need more F to move when FA is short and RA is long
lever length and velocity as length increases, lever can more effectively impart velocity
lever length and linear force increase together, allowing better performance in some sports
wheel and axle: fulcrum center of wheel and axle
wheel and axle: force arms radius of wheel and axle
wheel and axle: mechanical advantage wheel radius/axle radius
wheel and axle: speed advantage if force is applied to the axle than the outside of the wheel will travel faster and farther than the axle by the MA rotator cuff applies force to humerus (a) and hand and wrist (w) travel far and fast
pulleys function to change effective direction of force application; can be combined to increase MA lateral malleolus transmits force to plantar aspect of foot for eversion and plantar flexion
kinematics description of motion that includes time, displacement, velocity, acceleration and space
kinetics study of forces assocaited with the motion of the body
dynamics study of systems in motion with acceleration; system is unbalanced due to unequal forces acting on the body
linear motion motion along a line translatory motion
rectilinear motion along a straight line
curvilinear motion along a curved line
linear displacement distance that a system moves in a straight line
angular motion rotation around an axis (joint); produces the linear motion of walking rotary motion
angular displacement change in location of a rotating body
displacement distance from object's original point of reference
law of inertia a body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by a force; a body at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by a force
inertia and human movement muscles produce the force to change the amount and direction of motion; the body segment tends to maintain the current state of motion
factors affecting inertia as mass increases, inertia increases, and more force is needed to significantly change inertia
energy cost steady pace and direction conserves energy; irregularly paced/ directed activity is very costly to energy reserves
law of acceleration acceleration is affected by mass, direction of generating force, and speed of body part imparting force f=m*a
law of reaction for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
action force force we impart onto surface
ground reaction force surface's force due to action force easier to run on track than on sand
friction force created by the resistance of two objects moving upon one another increases for running, decreases for swimming
coefficient of friction force needed to overcome the friction over force holding the surfaces together force to push a boulder
rolling friction resistance to an object rolling across a surface; rf
equilibrium state of zero acceleration where there is no change in the speed or direction of the body
static equilibrium body is at rest or completely motionless
dynamic equilibrium all applied and inertial forces acting on the moving body are in balance, resulting in movement with unchanging speed or direction
balance ability to control equilibrium (static or dynamic)
stability resistance to a change in body acceleration or equilibrium
center of gravity (COG) point at which all of body's mass and weight are equally balanced or equally distributed in all directions
force produced by muscles to cause change in the position of a body segment, the entire body, or some object; many activities require a summation of forces
momentum mass*velocity; increases when resistance to change in inertia or state of motion increases; may be altered by impulse
impulse force*time
hip joint teres ligament attaches femoral head to acetabulum of pelvic girdle and slightly limits adduction acetabulofemoral joint
pelvic girdle right and left pelvic bones, joined posteriorly by the sacrum and anteriorly by the pubic symphysis
muscles that originate on the anterior pelvis tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, rectus femoris hip flexors
muscles that originate on the posterior pelvis gluteus maximus, hamstrings hip extensors
muscles that insert on the patella quadriceps
pubic symphysis anterior connection between pelvic bones; amphiarthrodial joint
sacroiliac joint posterior connection between the sacrum and the right or left pelvic bones
hip diagonal adduction combinatino of adduction and flexion
hip diagonal abduction combinatino of abduction and extension
anterior pelvic rotation iliac crest tilts forward in a sagittal plane anterior tilt
posterior pelvic rotation iliac crest tilts backward in a sagittal plane posterior tilt
left transverse pelvic rotation pelvis rotates to body's right; left iliac crest moves anteriorly while right iliac crest moves posteriorly
right transverse pelvic rotation pelvis rotates to body's left; right iliac crest moves anteriorly, while left iliac crest moves posteriorly
tibiofemoral joint hinge joint; femoral condyles articulate with tibial condyles trochoginglymus because of rotation during flexion
patellofemoral joint arthrodial joint; gliding of patella on femoral condyles
patella sesamoid bone imbedded in quadriceps and patellar tendon; improves angle of pull by acting as a pulley, causing greater mechanical advantage in knee extension
knee: static stability provided by ligaments: MCL, ACL, PCL, LCL
knee: dynamic stability provided by contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) crosses within knee between tibia and femur to maintain anterior and rotary (static) stability; commonly injured
acl injury caused by noncontact rotary forces, hyperextension, violent quadricep contraction pulling tibia forward on femur, or direct impact at front of thigh on when leg is stable
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) crosses within knee between tibia and femur to maintain posterior and rotary (static) stability; prevents femur from sliding off tibia anteriorly
pcl injury caused by direct contact to a flexed knee; not a common injury
fibular (lateral) collateral ligament (LCL) maintains lateral stability (static); not commonly injured
tibial (medial) collateral ligament (MCL) maintains medial static stability by resisting valgus force or preventing knee from being abducted; common injury in contact sports
q angle higher in females; associated with some knee problems
excessive ankle inversion most common sprain; usually ATF ligament tears
types of ankle sprains type 3 is most severe
shin splints common name for conditions resulting in pain along or just behind the tibia
supination combination of ankle plantar flexion, inversion and adduction toe in
pronation combination of ankle dorsiflexion, eversion and abduction toe out
vertebral column 33 total; 24 articulating
lordosis excessive posterior concavity of lumbar or cervical curves
ribs 12 pairs: 7 true; 5 false, 3 pairs attach indirectly to the sternum, 2 floating pairs
atlantooccipital joint first vertebral joint; allows capital flexion and extension
atlantoaxial joint most cervial rotation occurs here; atlas sits on axis
proximal carpal row (radial to ulnar) scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
distal carpal row (radial to ulnar) trapezuim, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
carpal tunnel syndrome inflammation of and pressure on the median nerve due to repetitive motions
acromioclavicular joint often injured arthrodial joint supported by coracoclavicular ligaments
rotator cuff injury causes strenuous circumduction, shoulder dislocation, hard fall/blows, repetitive motion in a position above horizontal; supraspinatus is most commonly injured
shoulder injury causes shallowness of glenoid fossa, laxity of ligaments for ROM, lack of strength and endudurance in shoulder muscles
"tommy john procedure" tendon graft associated with the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL)
"tennis elbow" lateral epicondylitis
"golfer's elbow" medial epicondylitis
2-joint (leg) muscles most effective when origin or insertion is stabilized or muscle is lengthened sartorius, hamstrings, rectus femoris
ligaments tough, non-elastic capsule thickenings that provide additional support against abnormal movement or joint opening
arthrodial joint two plane or flat bony surfaces gliding joint
goniometer instrument used to measure amount of movement in a joint or measure joint angles
Created by: selfstudy08