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Stack #109722

Cardiovascular System

cardiovascular systemchapter 5
angi/o blood, lymph vessels
aort/o aorta
arter/o, arteri/o arteries
ather/o plaque, fatty substance
brady- slow
card/o, cardi/o heart
coron/o coronary, crown
-emia blood, blood condition
erythr/o red
hem/o, hemat/o blood, relating to blood
leuk/o white
phleb/o vein
tachy- fast, rapid
thromb/o clot
ven/o vein
pericardium double-walled mambranous sac that encloses heart
pericardial fluid between layers, prevents friction
epicardium external layer, also part of pericardium
myocardium middle and thickest layer
endocardium lining of heart, inner surface
atria 2 upper receiving chambers
interatrial septum separating wall
ventricles 2 lower thicker walled chambers, all vessels leave heart from here
interventricular septum separating wall
tricuspid valve TV, 3 point opening between R atrium and R ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve half moon opening between R ventricle and pulmonary artery
mitral valve MV, bicuspid, 2 point opening between L atrium and L ventricle
aortic semiluna valve half moon shaped opening between L ventricle and aorta
systemic circulation blood flows to all point except lungs, o2 rich goes out L ventricle into arterial circulation, o2 poor comes in R atrium from veins
pulmonary circulation blood flows between heart and lungs, o2 poor goes out R ventricle to pulmonary arteries to lungs, o2 rich comes in L atrium from pulmonary veins
sinoatrial node natural pacemaker, posterior wall of R atrium, starts contraction of both atria forcing blood into ventricles
atrioventricular node on floor of R atrium, transmits electric umpulses to bundle of his
bundle of his within interventricular septum, carries impulses to purkinje fibers causing ventricles to contract forcing blood into aorta adn pulmonary arteries
lumen opening within arteries, capillaries, and veins
arteries carry o2 rich blood from heart to all points
aorta main trunk, begins from L ventricle
coronary artery branches from aorta, supplies blood to myocardium
arterioles smaller thinner branches, carry blood to capillaries
capillaries smallest vessels in body, connect arterial and venous circulatory systems, exchange o2, nutrients, and waste materials
veins return waste filled blood to heart, thin walled with valves for 1 way flow, venules small veins join up to make larger vein
venae cavae 2 large veins that enter heart
superior vena cava brings blood from upper portion of body
inferior vena cava brings blood from lower portion of body
blood pressure systolic- ventricles contract, highest pressure, diastolic- ventricles relax, lowest pressure
blood composition 55% liquid plasm, 45% formed elements (blood corpuscle)
blood corpuscles red and white blood cells, platelets
plasma straw colored, contains nutrients, hormones, waste products, water, proteins, and clotting proteins
serum plasma with clotting proteins removed
fibrinogen and prothrombin clotting proteins
erythrocytes mature red blood cells
hemoglobin iron containing pigment that transports o2 from lungs to all points
reticulocyte immature erythrocyte with meshlike pattern of threads
macrophanges from spleen,liver, and bone marrow destroy erythrocytes after no longer useful 120 days
leukocytes white blood cells, protects body from harmful bacteria
neutrophils fight infection by phagocytosis, most common of WBC, indicate bacterial infection
phagocytosis process of engulfing and swallowing germs
basophils promote inflammatory response, indicate allergic condition
eosinophils increase in reponse to allergic reaction
lymphocytes protect body against disease
monocytes protect against disease, indicates chronic infection
trombocytes platelets, fragments of large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes, become sticky and form clots
cardiologist specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of heart
hematologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases adn disorders of blood and blood forming tissues
coronary artery disease CAD, atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, cause angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and death
end stage CAD unrelenting angina pain and severly limited lifestyle
isch- hold back
ischemia deficiency in blood supply
angina pectoris choking/suffocating chest pain caused by interference of o2 to myocardium
infarct localized area of necrosis caused by interruption of blood supply
prolapse falling down
cardiac arrhythmia dysrhythmia, irregularity or loss of normal rhythm
fibrillation rapid, random, and ineffective contractions of heart
perfusion flow of blood through the vessels of an organ
aneurysm localized weak spot, balloon-like enlargement of wall of artery, ruptures often fatal
thrombus blood clot attached to interior wall of vein or artery
occlusion blockage in canal, vessel, or passageway
embol something inserted
embolus foreign object, blood clot, air, gas, tissue, or tumor, circulating in blood
embolism blockage of vessel by embolus
-crasia mixture, blending
chromat/o color
hemochromatosis iron overload disease
septicemia blood poisoning
cholesterol lipids (fatty substances) travel in packages called lipoproteins
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL, bad, contribute to plaque buildup
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL, good, doesn't contribute to plaque buildup
triglycerides combination of fatty acids attached to glycerol found normally in blood in limited quantities
homocysteine amino acid normally found in blood, used to build tissue, high levels can damage arterial walls and increase rick of CAD
-penia deficiency
plast/o growth, mold
-lytic destroy
essential hypertension primary, idiopathic, unknown origin
secondary hypertension caused by different medical problem, when other problem cured hypertension should resolve
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty balloon angioplasty
coronary artery bypass graft CABG, bypass surgery, vein from leg implanted on heart to bypass blockage in coronary artery
minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass MIDCABG, keyhole/buttonhole bypass
defibrillation cardioversion, use of electric shock to restore hearts normal rhythm
cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR
-stasis stopping, controlling
plasmapheresis plasma is removed from blood then returned to donor, to reduce/eliminate harmful substances
Created by: worker on 2007-12-12



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