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Biochem test 3-NW

NWHU biochem exam 3

QuestionAnswer
what is a peptidoglycan composed of carbohydrate and a protein (peptide)
common information on glycoproteins oligosaccharide attached to a protein, ommon in membrane proteins, for communication, blood type, hormones, antibodes, secreted proteins
What are the glycosidic bonds of oligosaccharide linkages acetal, ketal, bonds between carb and amino acid r-group, bonds between carb and lipid
info on proteoglycans polsaccharides connected to proteins, in connective issue, provides structure in extracellular matrix, growth factor activation, adhesion
info on glycolipids in cytoplasmic membanes, used for blood types
what glycoconjugates are involved in communication relating to membranes glycoprotein and glycolipid
what glycoconjugate is involved n functions of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan
what are the functons of proteoglycan storage of water, joint lubrication
what glycoconjugate is involved in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide
what are characteristics of lipopolysaccharides recognized by human immune system, variations of building blocks in polysaccharides lead to different serotypes, lipid A acts as toxin gets a reaction from the immune system
where is the carbohydrate attached in a glycoprotein to its anomeric carbon through a glycosidic link to the -OH
what specifically are proteoglycans one or more large glycans, called sulfated glycosaminoglycans are covalently attached to a core protein
examples of glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate, chondroiin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate
where are proteoglycans located bound to the outside of the plasma membrane by a transmembrane peptide or a covalently attached lipid.
what do proteoglycans do provide points of adhesion, recognition, and information transfer between cells, or between the cell and the extracellular matrix
where are glycolipids and glycopolysaccharides located in the cell components of the cell envelope, have covalently attached oligosaccharide chains exposed on the cell's outer surface
what is a common characteristic between cell surface, extracellular, and secreted proteins they are all glycoproteins
what effect do the oligosaccharides have on the glycoproteins they influence the folding and stability of the proteins, provide critical information about the targeting of newly synthesized proteins, and allow for specific recognition by other proteins
what is the sugar code represents specific interactions between distinct oligosaccharides and receptors
what are the reasons behind the large number of possibilities of oligosaccharides large number of building blocks, few restrictions with respect to size, unrestricted branching, and alpha- or beta- connections combined with -OH in many positions
what are lectins proteins with a ligand site that bind carbohydrates with high specificity and affinity.
What are the purposes of lectins wide variety of cell-cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion processes and in intracellular targeting of newly synthesized proteins (they intiate interaction with other cells)
where are lectins found commonly found on the outer surface of cells
what happens when oligosaccharide tags are read by lectins in vertebrates they govern the rate of degradation of certain peptide hormones, circulating proteins, and blood cells
what do lectins have to do with bacterial and viral pathogens and some parasites they adhere to their targets by the binding of lectins in the pathogens to oligosaccharides on the target cell surface
what is the purpose of intracellular lectins they mediate intracellular protein targeting to specific organellesor the secretory pathway
do viruses bind to oligosaccharides through cell surface glycoproteins or glycolipids glycoproteins, as the first step in infection
do bacterial toxins (cholera, pertussis)bind to oligosaccharides through cell surface glycoproteins or glycolipids before entering a cell glycolipids
what is an example of a cell-cell interaction mediated by lectins in the plasma membrane of a cell neutrophils with the endohelial cells of the capillary wall at an infection site
what is the function of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor (lectin of the trans golgi complex) binds the oligosaccharides of lysosomal enzymes, targeting them for the transfer into the lysosome
A deficiency in what vitamin leads to night blindness, blindness, or dry skin, eyes, and mucous membranes Vitamin A (retinol)
What are general functions of vitamin A pigment, hormone signalling
A deficiency in what vitamin leads to Beriberi, and what are the general functions of that vitamin vitamin B1 (thiamine), coenzyme in central enzymes
What are the functions of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) integral part of coenzymes (FAD, FMN) involved in energy production
Dficiency in what vitamin could lead to Pellegra, and what are the general functions of that vitamin vitamin B3 (niacin) , integral part of coenzymes NAD and NADP involved in energy production
What are the general functions of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) integral part of coenzyme A (acyl carrier, fat biosynthesis)
what are the general functions of vitamin B7 (Biotin) coenzymes of carboxylases (add COO- from CO2)
what are the general functions of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine or pyridoxol; pyridoxal and pyridoxamine) coenzymes of ~100 enzymes
Deficiency of what vitamin could lead to macrocystal megalblastic anemia, and what are its general functions vitamin b9 (folic acid), coenzyme that transfers C1 units (nucleic and amino acid metabolism)
deficiency of what vitamin could lead to pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and neurologic symptoms; and what are its general functions vitmin B12 (cobalamin), a coenzyme of enzymes that transfer alkyl groups
The deficiency of what vitamin could lead to scurvy and fatigue, and what are its eneral functions vitain C, synthesis of collagen antioxidant, synthesis of carnitine, metablism of cholesterol
deficiency of what vitamin could lead to rickets, and what are its general functions vitamin D, Ca2+ levels in the blood, bone density, modulator of the immune system
What are the general functions of vitamin E Antioxidant, inhibits platelet aggregation, and enhances vasodilation
deficiency of what vitamin could lead to delayed blood clotting and hemorrhaging, and what are its general functions vitamin K, blood clotting, prevents calcification of soft tissue/ cartilage
What are the basic building blocks of a nucleotide phosphate group, amino acid base, and and a pentose group
what is the pentose called in RNA, DNA ribose, deoxyribose
what are the bonds beween the phosphate groups in a nucleotide, if there are more than one anydride bonds (high energy)
what are the possible base types in the nucleotide purine, pyramidine
what are the possible pyramidines, purines pyramidines: cytosine, thymine (dna), uracil (rna) purines: adenine, guanine
what are the basic functions of nucleotides building blocks for DNA or RNA synthesis, energy currency in biological systems (ATP), chemical links in hormonal signals, structural components of several coenzymes
What are examples of the coenzymes of which nucleotides are a part NAD+, FAD, coenzyme A
what are the bonds that link successive nueotides in nuceic acids phosphodiester bonds
What is the way to tell apart the 5' end from the 3' end in nucleic acids 5' has the phosphate group, 3' has the -OH
What are the ways complementary strands of DNA are stabilized when they are bonded together hydrogen bonds stabilize double stranded structure between strands, hydrophobic interaction stabilizes between adjacent bases within each strand
Who published the discovery of DNA, and when was it published 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick
when was the Nobel prize awarded for the discovery, and to whom 1962, Wason, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
what are mutations in genes inherited changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
What are the types of mutations, and examples of each Spontaneous: deamination, depurination; external factors: radiation (UV, Xray, gamma ray), chemical: deaminating agents, oxidative agents
What hppens in deamination loss of an amino group
what happens in depurination purine-pentose bond breaks
what can happen as a result of UV radiation Thymine dimer (DNA reads 2 adjacent thymines as 1, causes frame shift mutation)
What can happen as a result of ionizing radiation covalent bonds break, rings in bases can open, can cause depurination, bonds in the backbone can break; reactive oxygen forces can form
What are possible chemical causes of mutations deaminating agents, can lose the amine group, oxidative agents, can cause oxygen radicals, possibly alter the structure of biomolecules
What are lipids water insoluble cellular components, can be extracted by nonpolar solvents
what are the various functions of lipids membrane, energy storage, energy source, coenzymes or prosthetic groups, signal transduction, hormones (regulation, communication), pigments (retinal from beta-carotene)
what are fatty acids hyrocarbon derivativesat aout the same oxidation state (very low) as the hydrocarbons in fossil fuels. The hydrocarbon chains range from 4 to 36 carbons in length.
What is the result of the low oxidation state of the hydrocarbons in fatty acids the cellular oxidation creates a lot of energy (similar to controlled rapid burning of fossil fuels in an internal combustion engine)
What does it mean for a hydrocarbon chain to be unsaturated it contains no double bonds
what is the method of nomenclature for unbranched fatty acids FA, total # of carbons: number of double bonds (delta followed by position of the double bonds) ex; 20:2(delta9,12)
what do storage lipids consist of glycerol, 3 fatty acids
what are fatty acids with multiple double bonds called polyunsaturated fatty acids
what is the difference between cis- and trans- configurations of PUFAs cis- are healthy (from plants and fatty fish, grass-fed beef), trans- are not as healthy (bacterial activity in meat from ruminating animals, human-developed process: partial hydrogenation)
what are the physical property comparisons of fatty acids bigger hydrocarbon tail--less water soluble, higher melting point; more cis- double bonds--more water soluble, lower melting point
which end of the fatty acid is counted first in PUFAs the double bond furthest from the COO- is counted first
FA 16:0 Palmitic acid, palmitate (product in fatty acid synthesis in humans)
FA 18:2delta9,12 Linoleic acid (essential FA) omega-6
FA 18:3delta9,12,15 alpha-linoleic acid (essential FA) omega-3
FA 20:4delta5,8,11,14 arachidonic acid (precursor for inflammation) omega-6
FA 20:5delta5,8,11,14,17 Eicosapentaneoic acid (precursor for regulatory compounds in inflammation) omega-3
FA 22:6delta4,7,10,13,16,19 Docosahexaneoic acid, omega-3
where is triacylglycerol formed in adipose tissue, in the liver (COO- bonds to the -OH of the glycerol backbone in a condensation reaction
What is the comparison of energy storage of carbs vs. fats fats hav higher energy content per weight, each gram of glycogen has ~2 g of H2O associated, fts have insulating properties, glycogen is short-term storage that is quickly accessible, fats are long-term storage with a slow mobilization process
What are the 2 basic types of membrane lipids glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids
what are characteristics of the lipid bilayer two layers of hydrophilic heads with hydrophobic tails between them 000000000 heads """"""""" tails """"""""" tails 000000000 heads
What is the meaning of amphipathic in terms of membrane lipids one component is hydrophobic and another is hydrophilic
what is the difference between sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids gycerophospholipids have 3 ester bonds and aphosphate group, sphingolipids have an amide bond and no ester bonds
where are common examples of ether-lipids membrane lipids in cardiac muscle of the heart
what are functions of ether lipids platelet activating factor (regulatory function, in blood, promotes blood clotting, released by white bood cells), functon of immunity (release of serotonin, upregulation of inflammation, allergic reactions)
what is another function of ether lipids pregnancy (implantation of fertilzed egg, maturation of fetus, induction of labor)
good way to identify triacylglycerols 3 ester bonds with fatty acids
good way to identify etherlipids has an ether bond in the hydrophobic end
good way to identify a sphingolipid has an amide bond and no additional hydrophilic group
good way to identify glycerolphospholipids look for phosphoesters
what are some examples of lipids as signals and cofactors hormone (steroid, paracrine- prostaglandines, thromboxanes, leukotrienes), coenzymes in e- transport-- quinones
what is ubiquinone a mitochondrial electron carrier (coenzyme Q)
what are eicosanoids substances that act only on the cells near the point of hormone synthesis-- not transported through the blood
what are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (20:4delta 5,8,11,14)
what are the three classes of eicosanoids, paracrine hormones prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
what are steroids oxidized derivatives of sterols- many that perform anti-inflammatory activities
what are some characterisitics of the biological membrane diameter of 5-8 nm, made up of phospholipids, proteins; flexibility; separation of compartments; selectively permeable
what are some of the movements of membrane lipids uncatalyzed transverse ("flip-flop", very slow), transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase (fast) , uncatalyzed lateral diffusion (very fast, happens within layer)
What are the two types of amino acid r-groups alpha helices (membrane spanning), beta barrels (produced by bacteria, gram negative in outer membrane, create pores
what are some characteristics of beta barrel membrane proteins "ribbons" lining pores in membranes, ~7-9 amino acids to span membrane once, ~20 sections of beta-helical polypeptide for one pore
what does staph aureus do releases alpha hemolysin subunits, aggregate in host form pores (multi subunit complexes)
Created by: Sunny Sky Sunny Sky on 2012-11-15



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