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FBSF Chapter 6

FBSD The Skeletal System, Chapter 6

The skeleton has five general functions: 1.supports & stabilizes surrounding tissue such as muscles, blood vessels, nerves, adipose(fat) tissue, & skin. 2.Protects vital organs of the body such as brain, spinal cord,heart & lungs
The 5 general functions of the skeleton continued 3.Assists in body movement(locomotion) by providing attachments for muscles that pull on bones that act as levers 4.Red bone marrow manufactures blood cells/ hematopoiesis 5.It is a storage area for fat& mineral salts/ phosphorus(P)& Calcium(Ca)
Located at the ends of the long bones and the center of all others is a meshwork of interconnecting sections called cancellous(spongy) bone
The many spaces within cancellous bone are filled with red bone marrow
Red bone marrow is found in larger quantities in the cranium, ribs, vertebrae, sternum, & pelvic bones
A common site for red bone marrow extraction is an iliac crest (very top of hips)
Yellow bone marrow is found in the medullary cavity of the shafts of the long bones
Yellow bone marrow is primarily made up of fat cells(adipose tissue)
The shaft of the long bones is called the diaphysis
The two extremities of the long bones are called the epiphyses
The epiphyses are the sections of the long bones that grow vertically(growth plates)
A fibrovascular membrane that covers a bone is called the periosteum
the tissue found between articulating bones that acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction is called cartilage
Cartilage can also be referred to as a meniscus (type of cartilage)
The tissue that binds articulating bones together & allows a certain Range Of Movement (ROM) is called ligaments -- bind bone on bone
The tissue that connects a muscle to a bone is called a tendon
The formation of bone is called ossification
Bone cells are called osteocytes
Ostocytes are classified as 1.Osteoblasts which will build bone 2.Osteoclasts which will remove(reabsorb) bone
What is required for osteoblasts(build bone) to function WeightT (WT) bearing (put weight on bone)
What is required for osteoclasts (remove/reabsorb bone) to function nothing
Bones whose length exceeds their width are called long bones
Examples of long bones include 1.Two clavicles AKA collar bones 2.Two humeri AKA superior arm bones 3.Two radii AKA lateral inferior arm bones 4.Two ulnae AKA medial inferior arm bones 5.Two femurs AKA thigh bones(superior legs/ largest bone in body)
The proximal(beginning) portion of each ulna is called the olecranon(elbow)
Examples of long bones include continued 6.Two tibiae AKA anterior/front inferior leg bones (shins) 7.Two fibulae AKA posterior inferior leg bones(little fibs) 8.Ten metacarpals AKA hand bones 9.Ten metatarsals AKA foot bones 10.Twenty phalanges AKA fingers/toes/digits
One finger or toe or digit is called a phalanx
Bones without a shaft(diaphysis) are called short bones
Examples of short bones include 1.16 carpals AKA wrist bones..arranged in two rows of four each 2.Fourteen tarsals AKA ankle bones..are arranged in the hindfoot & the forefoot
In each proximal (beginning) row (of the carpals,(wrist bones) from medial to lateral are the 1.Pisiform 2.Triquetrum(triquetral) 3.Lunate 4.Scaphoid(navicular)
In each distal (end) row (of the carpals, wrist bones) from medial to lateral are the 5.Hamate 6.Capitate 7.Trapezoid 8.Trapexium
Each hindfoot (hind/back)(tarsals/ankle bones) is made up of the 1.Calcaneus(calcaneum) AKA heel 2.Talus 3.Navicular 4.Cuboid
Each forefoot (front) is made up of the 1.Medial or first cuneiform 2.Intermediate or second cuneiform 3.Lateral or third cuneiform
Thin bones found whenever there is a need for extensive muscle attachment or protection for soft or vital parts are called flat bones
Examples of flat bones include the 1.Cranium AKA skull 2.One sternum AKA the breast bone 3.Twelve pairs of ribs 4.Two scapulae AKA shoulder bones(blades) 5.Pelvic bones 6.Two patellae AKA kneecaps
The bones of the cranium include Two parietal bones/cranial roof*One frontal bone/forehead*Two temporal bones/temples*One occipital bone*Two zygomatic bones/check bones *One maxilla/superior jaw *One mandible/inferior jaw* One nasal bone/bridge of the nose*orbits for eyes
The occipital bone is located at the posterior base of the cranium
The depressions where the eyes are found are called the orbits
The superior(upper) section of the sternum(breast bone) is called the manubrium(handle)
The medial(middle) section of the sternum(breast bone) is called the gladiolus(blade)
The inferior(bottom) section of the sternum(breast bone) is called the xiphoid process(tip)
The twelve pairs of ribs are arranged as follows Ribs 1-7 are called the true ribs(vertebrosternal) Ribs 8-12 are called the false ribs(vertebrochondral) The last two false ribs are called floating ribs(vertebral)
The lateral end of each scapula is called the acromion process (means it sticks out)
The muscles that move each arm are attached to a scapula at the coracoid process(means it sticks out)
The head of each humerus(superior arm) articulates with a glenoid fossa(indentation)
The bones of the pelvis include the ilia, ischia & pubes (plural) ilium, ischium & pubis (singular)
A typical vertebra(Spinal Column) consists of: 1.vertebral body 2.vertebral(neural) foramen 3.spinous process(means it sticks out) 4.two transverse processes(means it sticks out) 5.lamina 6.pedicles
Spinal column/ A thick disk-shaped anterior(front) portion pierced with numerous small holes for nerves & blood vessels that nourish the bone called the vertebral body
Spinal column/ The passageway for the spinal cord called the vertebral(neural) foramen
Spinal column/ The posterior(rear/back) projection called the spinous process(means it sticks out)
Spinal column/ Two lateral(side) projections called transverse processes(means it sticks out)
Spinal column/ The posterior(rear/back) wall of each vertebral arch called the lamina
Spinal column/ The sections that connect each vertebral body to a vertebral arch and are notched to allow passageway for spinal nerves called pedicules
The surface of any typical bone will exhibit certain projections called processes(means it sticks out) and depressions called fossa(means an indentation)
Processes 1.Any sharp slender projection is referred to as a spine
Processes 2.A large prominence usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments is called a tuberosity
Processes 3.A rounded or knuckle-like prominence is referred to as a condyle
Processes 4.A small round process is referred to as a tubercle
Processes 5.A process shaped like a pulley is referred to as a trochlea
Processes 6.A very large projection is referred to as a trochanter
Processes 7.A narrow ridgeis referred to as a crest
Processes 8.A less prominent ridge is referred to as a line
Processes 9.A terminal enlargement is referred to as a head
Processes 10.The part of the bone that connects to the head is referred to as a neck
Fossae(indentation) 1.A narrow junction between two bones is referred to as a suture
Fossae(indentation) 2.An opening through which blood vessels, nerves & ligaments pass is referred to as a foramen
Fossae(indentation) 3.A long tube-like passage is referred to as a canal
Fossae(indentation) 4.A cavity within a bone is referred to as a sinus or antrum
Fossae(indentation) 5.A furrow or groove is referred to as a sulcus
How many bones does the human body have 206
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed