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The Skeletal System

Chapter 6 Page 115

The skeleton has five general functions: 1 - 2 1. It supports and stabilizes surrounding tissue such as muscles, blood vessels, nerves, adipose (fat) tissue, and skin. 2. It protects vital organs of the body such as the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs.
The skeleton has five general functions:3 -4 3. It assists in body movement (locomotion) by providing attachments for muscles that pull on the bones that act as levers. 4. The red bone marrow manufactures blood cells called hematopoiesis.
The skeleton has five general functions: 5 5. It is a storage area for fat and mineral salts, especially phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca).
Located at the ends of the long bones and the center of all others is a meshwork of interconnecting sections called cancellous (spongy) bone.
The many spaces within cancellous bone are filled with red bone marrow.
Red bone marrow is found in larger quantities in the cranium, ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and pelvic bones.
A common site for red bone marrow extraction is an iliac crest.
Yellow bone marrow is found in the medullary cavity of the shafts of the long bones.
Yellow bone marrow is primarily made up of fat cells (adipose tissue).
The shaft of the long bones is called the diaphysis.
The two extremities of the long bones are called the epiphyses.
The epiphyses are the sections of the long bones that grow vertically (growth plates).
A fibrovascular membrane that covers a bone is called the periosteum.
The tissue found between articulating bones that acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction is called cartilage.
Cartilage can also be referred to as a meniscus.
The tissue that binds articulating bones together and allows a certain range of movement (ROM) is called ligaments.
The tissue that connects a muscle to a bone is called a tendon.
The formation of bone is called ossification.
Bone cells are called osteocytes.
Osteocytes are classified as: 1. Osteoblasts which will build bone. 2. Osteoclasts which will remove (reabsorb) bone.
What is required for osteoblasts to function? Weight (WT) bearing.
What is required for the osteoclasts to function? Nothing.
Bones whose length exceeds their width are called long bones.
Examples of long bones include: 1-5 1. Two clavicles AKA collar bones. 2. Two humeri AKA superior arm bones. 3. Two radii AKA lateral inferior arm bones. 4. Two ulnae AKA medial inferior arm bones. 5. Two femurs AKA thigh bones (superior legs).
The proximal portion of each ulna is called the olecranon (elbow).
Examples of long bones include 6- 7 6. Two tibiae AKA anterior inferior larger leg bones (shins). 7. Two fibulae AKA posterior inferior leg bones (“little fibs”).
Examples of long bones include 8-10 8. Ten metacarpals AKA hand bones. 9. Ten metatarsals AKA foot bones. 10. Twenty phalanges AKA fingers or toes or digits.
One finger or toe or digit is called a phalanx.
Bones without a shaft (diaphysis) are called short bones.
The carpals are arranged in two rows of four each.
Examples of short bones include: 1. 16 carpals AKA wrist bones. 2. Fourteen tarsals AKA ankle bones.
In each proximal row from medial to lateral are the: a. Pisiform. b. Triquetrum (triquetral). c. Lunate. d. Scaphoid (navicular).
In each distal row from medial to lateral are the: e. Hamate. f. Capitate. g. Trapezoid. h. Trapezium.
The tarsals are arranged in the hindfoot and the forefoot.
Each hindfoot is made up of the 1. Calcaneus (calcaneum) AKA heel. 2. Talus. 3. Navicular. 4. Cuboid
Each forefoot is made up of the: 1. Medial or first cuneiform. 2. Intermediate or second cuneiform. 3. Lateral or third cuneiform.
Thin bones found whenever there is a need for extensive muscle attachment or protection for soft or vital parts are called flat bones.
Examples of flat bones include the 1.Cranium AKA skull. 2.One sternum AKA the breast bone. 3. Twelve pairs of ribs. 4. Two scapulae AKA shoulder bones (blades). 5. Pelvic bones. 6. Two patellae AKA kneecaps.
The bones of the cranium include: a-f a.Two parietal bones AKA the cranial roof. b.One frontal bone AKA forehead. c.Two temporal bones AKA temples. d.One occipital bone. e.Two zygomatic bones AKA cheek bones. f.One maxilla AKA superior jaw.
The occipital bone is located at the posterior base of the cranium.
The bones of the cranium include:g-i g. One mandible AKA inferior jaw. h. One nasal bone AKA the bridge of the nose. i.The depressions where the eyes are found are called the orbits.
The superior section of the sternum is called the manubrium (handle).
The medial section of the sternum is called the gladiolus (blade).
The inferior section of the sternum is called the xiphoid process (tip).
Ribs 1-7 are called the true ribs (vertebrosternal).
Ribs 8-12 are called the false ribs (vertebrochondral).
The last two false ribs are called floating ribs (vertebral).
The lateral end of each scapula is called the acromion process.
The muscles that move each arm are attached to a scapula at the coracoid process.
The head of each humerus (superior arm) articulates with a glenoid fossa.
The bones of the pelvis include the ilia, ischia, and pubes. Singular: ischium, ilium, and pubis
A typical vertebra consists of: 1. A thick disk-shaped anterior portion pierced with numerous small holes for nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone called the vertebral body.
2. The passageway for the spinal cord called the vertebral (neural) foramen.
3. The posterior projection called the spinous process.
4. Two lateral projections called transverse processes.
5. The posterior wall of each vertebral arch called the lamina.
6. The sections that connect each vertebral body to a vertebral arch and are notched to allow passageway for spinal nerves called pedicles.
The surface of any typical bone will exhibit certain projections and depressions.
The projections are called processes.
The depressions are called fossae.
1. Any sharp slender projection is referred to as a spine.
2. A large prominence usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments is called a tuberosity.
3. A rounded or knuckle-like prominence is referred to as a condyle.
4. A small round process is referred to as a tubercle.
5. A process shaped like a pulley is referred to as a trochlea
6. A very large projection is referred to as a trochanter.
7. A narrow ridge is referred to as a crest.
8. A less prominent ridge is referred to as a line
9. A terminal enlargement is referred to as a head
10. The part of the bone that connects to the head is referred to as a neck
1. A narrow junction between two bones is referred to as a suture.
2. An opening through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass is referred to as a foramen.
3. A long tube-like passage is referred to as a canal
4. A cavity within a bone is referred to as a sinus or antrum.
5. A furrow or groove is referred to as a sulcus.
How many bones does the human body have? 206
Created by: willowsalem