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Human Geo Key Terms

Hum. Geo. Review Key Terms- Nov. 9, 2012

QuestionAnswer
Demography Study of population numbers, distribution, trends, and issues
Census Process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data about all people living in a particular area
Developed Country a country with a highly developed economy and infrastructure and high living standards
Developing Country a country with a less sophisticated economy and lower standard of living than developed countries; may have extensive poverty
birth rate number of births per 1000 people in a country in a given year
death rate the number of deaths per 1000 people in a country in a given year
demographic transition model a model that shows changes in a population's birth and death rates and growth based on technological development
industrialization the overall change in a society from farm production and craftsmanship to mechanized manufacturing production
urbanization the move of people from farms to cities where jobs are available
mortality deaths in a population
immigration rate number of new arrivals in a country in a given year per 1000 people
emigration rate the number of people leaving a country in a given year per 1000 people
natural increase (NI) the rate at which a population increases (or decreases) in a year expressed as a percentage of the total population; calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate
Exponential rate a rapid rate of population growth as each generation doubles in size
Rule of 70 the time it takes a country to double its population, approximately 70 divided by the country's growth rate
doubling time the number of years it takes a country to double its population at its current growth rate
net migration the difference between the number of people immigrating to a country and the number of people emigrating
migrant a person who moves from one region to another
Life expectancy the average number of years an individual is expected to live
Family planning the concept of limiting the size of families
Rhythm method a method of birth control in which a couple does not have intercourse during the time when a woman is likely to ovulate
Sterilization a procedure by which a person's ability to reproduce is destroyed
Vasectomy a form of male sterilization in which the tube carrying sperm from each testis is cut and tied
Coercion the use of force
Contraception birth control
Total Fertility Rate the average number of children born over the lifetime of a typical woman in a particular country
One-child policy a policy adopted by China to control population growth
Infanticide the act of killing an infant
Gender selection the choice of whether to keep a fetus based on its gender
Nutritional Density a measure of how much nutrition in calories can be produced from a certain area; an area with fertile soil and adequate temperatures and precipitation will have a higher nutritional density than an area such as Canada's North
Population Growth Rate the rate at which a country's population increases or decreases;calculated by adding natural increase and net migration
Dependency Ratio the proportion of the population (children and those over 65 years of age) that is being supported by the working age group
Dependency Load the percentage of a population that is younger than 15 or older than 64 years of age
Population Distribution the pattern of where people live in an area
Ecumene the populated area of the world
Population Density the number of people living in a given area; calculated by diving the population by its area
Population Pyramid A bar graph that shows male and female populations back to back at age intervals of five years
Age Cohort an age group in a population, for example, the number of people between the ages of 10 and 14
Neo-Malthusians people who share Malthus' pessimistic views regarding population growth
Carrying Capacity the maximum number of people that can be sustained by an environment
Ecological Footprint the impact of humans on the environment
Cornucopians people who have optimistic views on population growth due to advances in science and technology
Demographic Regulation the theory that population growth will level off as living standards improve
Infrastructure structures such as roads, railways, power grids, and communications links that are basic to the functioning of a modern economy, as well as buildings such as schools and hospitals
Newly Industrialized Countries countries that are experiencing rapid economic and industrial growth; many are switching from agricultural to industrial economies
heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) countries at the low end of the UN human development index that are in debt to developed nations
Human Development Index the UN's index is used to rank standards of living in its member countries
standard of living a measure comparing how well people live in different countries based on three indicators; life expectancy, literacy rate, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita
literacy rate the percentage of a population that is able to read and write
GDP per capita gross domestic product, or the total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year, divided by the population
non-governmental organizations(NGOs) non-profit local, national, or international groups that work independently of government on issues such as health, the environment, or human rights
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) eight goals developed by the member states of the UN to close the gap in living standards between developed and developing countries
Globalization the spread of ideas, information, and culture around the world through advances in communication, technology, and travel
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) Companies that do business in more than one country
World Bank an international group of five financial institutions that provide financial and technical help to developing countries
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) originally created as the organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) to administer the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe after the Second World War; OECD's mission is to improve living standards in developing countries
bilateral aid assistance from one country to another
subsistence farming a form of farming in which the crops grown are used to feed the farmer and his or her family, with little or nothing left over to sell or trade
desertification the spread of desert-like conditions in an area, sometimes cause by human activity
ethnic cleansing the elimination of one ethnic group from an area by another ethnic group
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) a UN organization that helps build peace, fight poverty, and promote sustainable development through education, the sciences culture, communication, and information
foreign aid aid from rich, industrialized countries to poorer, developing countries
official development assistance (ODA) aid given to developing countries through official government programs to promote economic development and the welfare of the people
multilateral aid aid delivered through international organizations such as the UN and the World Bank
Tied Aid aid given to a foreign country with conditions attached
International Monetary Fund (IMF) an international organization designed to promote economic stability and development
megaproject a very large-scale, costly project to help develop infrastructure, such as building roads, dams, or irrigation systems
commodities goods or services that are bought or sold
structural adjustment programs (SAPs) programs designed by the World Bank and IMF to adjust the economies of developing countries as a condition of receiving loans
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) a UN organization that works to protect children's rights, to make sure the basic needs of children are met and to help children reach their full potential; originally called United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
Bonded Labour (debt bondage) paying off a loan with labour rather than money; bonded labourers often work for very little pay and their labour is worht more than the original debt
subsidies grants from the government, intended to help people
world health organization (WHO) a UN agency that coordinates international health activities and helps governments improve health services
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Canada's leading development agency for assistance to the developing world
Sustainable Development a way to maintain economic growth without damaging the environment
Earth Summit a meeting of world leaders, held in rio de janeiro, brazil, in 1992, to discuss environmental changes and sustainable development
agenda 21 a statement of environmental action, produced at the 1992 earth summit, that outlines actions that should be taken to protect the planet and achieve sustainable development
herbicides substances used to kill plants
pesticides substances used to kill pests such as unwanted plants and animals
organic grown or produced without chemical fertilizers or pesticides
Co2 Emissions carbon dioxide emissions caused by burning of fossil fuels; largest contributor to global warming
biodiversity having a variety of life forms
ecotourism tourism to threatened areas that tries to be low-impact and small-scale
biosphere regions of earth occupied by living organisms, made up of all the ecozones
stewardship careful management of resources to ensure that they are sustainable
permafrost subsoil that remains frozen all year long
carrying capacity the largest population that an environment can support
deforestation the process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else
Global Warming the observed and projected increase in the earth's average temperature due to burning of fossil fuels and deforestation
ecology the science concerned with the relationship between living things and their environment
Acid Precipitation any form of precipitation that is high in sulfuric and nitric acids as a result of pollution in the air
Protected Areas Strategy (PAS) a plan to preserve approximately 12 percent of B.C.'s provincial land for parks, recreation, and wilderness
watersheds river basins drained by a river and flowing into the same large body of water
groundwater water beneath Earth's surface in underground streams and other forms
surface water water that is readily available on Earth's surface in streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, and oceans
Wastewater water that has been used in homes or industries and, as a result, contains waste products
watermilfoil weed a plant that grows and spreads quickly, choking out native plants, affecting spawning areas for fish, and posing a safety problem if it grows around public beaches
Aquifer an underground layer of rock, gravel, etc., from which water can be drawn for wells and which is a source of springs
Peatlands wetlands with soil formed mostly from decomposing plants
greenhouse effect greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere causing earth's temperature to rise
Kyoto Protocol an international agreement that sets binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; the average target is 5 percent of 1990 levels by 2008-2012
carbon credit if an organization produces more greenhouse gases than it is allowed, it can purchase a credit from an organization that is below its target emission levels
carbon footprint the total amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted over the full life cycle of a produce or service
troposphere the lowest level of Earth's atmosphere
ozone layer A layer in the earth's stratosphere at an altitude of about 10 km (6.2 miles) containing a high concentration of ozone, which absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth from the sun
Aerosols A substance enclosed under pressure and able to be released as a fine spray, typically by means of a propellant gas
Alternative Energy Sources Energy sources different from those in widespread use at the moment (which are referred to as conventional). Alternative energy usually includes solar, wind, wave, tidal, hydroelectric and geothermal energy
Sustainable energy energy produced both from renewable resources or by use of clean production technology
Bali Road map two-year process to finalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen
Copenhagen 2009 The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December.
Anthropogenic (human) (chiefly of environmental pollution and pollutants) Originating in human activity -anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide
Created by: tpickles