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Latin America part 2

Cause and Effect: History, Culture, Government and Economics

Montezuma The last emperor of the Aztec Empire. He thought Cortes was a "god of wisdom." This trust led to Montezuma's downfall.
Atahualpa The last emperor of the Inca Empire. He was executed by Pizarro and his men.
Aztec Empire Located in Mexico, the civilization existed from 1300s-1500s. The capital was Tenochtitlan. The government was oligarchy and economy was command. Aztec were polytheistic and practiced human sacrifice. Achievements: education, red, chocolate and popcorn.
Inca Empire Located by Andes Mountains, the civilization existed from 1200s-1500s. Capital was Cusco, Peru. The government was Autocracy and economy was command. Emperor descendent of sun god. Incas were polytheistic. Achievements: medicine and complex road system.
Hernan Cortes Conquistador who conquered Aztec Empire in 1521.
Francisco Pizarro Conquistador who conquered Inca Empire in 1553.
Toussaint L'Ouverture Led the first successful rebellion of enslaved people and liberated Haiti.
Simon Bolivar The "George Washington" of Latin America. He helped liberate Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru.
Miguel Hidalgo The priest who rang the bell for Mexican Independence on September 16th, 1810. Spanish Inquisition executed him in 1811.
Fidel Castro Staged a coup d'etat in Cuba in 1959. Was dictator of Cuba from 1959-2006 (for a long time).
Polytheistic The belief in more than one god.
Conquistador From Spain, an explorer of the New World who wants to conquer land.
Middle Passage The voyage of enslaved people from Africa to Americas. Very terrible conditions.
Columbian Exchange The exchange of peoples, diseases, resources, and animals between the Old World (Europe) and New World (Americas).
Spanish Mission System Priests lived in churches, former encomenderos lived in haciendas, and Native Americans lived in pueblos. In this system, Native Americans worked for no pay in difficult conditions and were converted to Catholicism.
Zapatista In 1994, guerrilla fighters who were working for better conditions for the Indiginas people of Chiapas, Mexico.
Coup d'etat The overthrow of the government
Federation A country with a strong national government that shares power with smaller state governments.
Confederation A government made up of individually governed states. The national government has little power.
Unitary A country where a single national government has all the power.
Dictatorship The power is concentrated in the hands of one leader.
Republic People elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf.
Market Economy No government interference or regulations in the economy. Private business.
Command Economy The government controls ALL aspects of the economy.
Mixed Economy A combination of mixed and command economy. There are some government regulations and also private business and free trade.
Communism A type of economy when all property and resources are distributed equally to all people. Usually accompanied by a dictatorship type government. No private businesses.
Natural Resources A material that brings wealth to a country that can be found naturally (ex: water, timber, oil)
Renewable Resources Natural resources that can be replaced by nature (ex: trees, water)
Nonrenewable Resources Natural resources that cannot be replaced by nature (ex: oil, coal)
Human Capital The value of people's education, experience, and work
Capital Goods Any goods or equipment used by a business to produce other goods.
Entrepreneur A person who takes risk and possible reward of organizing and operating a new business.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) A way to measure a country's economy. The total value (worth) of the goods and services produced by the residents of a country during a year.
Trade deficit When the total value of a country's imports are higher than the total value of its exports
Trade surplus When the total value of a country's exports are higher than the total value of its imports.
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement- An arrangement signed in 1993 that allows free trade among the U.S, Canada and Mexico
Embargo A ban on trade with a country for political reasons
Tariff A tax on imports or goods coming into a country.
Quota Limit on the number of goods that can be imported from a certain country.
Ethnic group Determined by factors someone is born into- ethnicity, geography, language, and culture.
Cultural diffusion When people move from one place to another, they bring their language and traditions with them.
Mulattos People of mixed African and European ancestry in Latin America.
Created by: melcohen