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Exam Review

1)During sexual intercourse, how many sperm cells can a man eject? Up to 100 million sperm cells.
2)Describe the two main functions of the male reproductive system. Produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
3)Describe the purpose of the Vas Deferens? Carries sperm from the epididymis up into the pelvic cavity.
4)Describe the purpose of the Seminal Vesicles. Secretes a glucose-rich fluid that nourishes the sperm.
5)Name the internal organs of the male reproductive system. 2 Seminal Vesicles, 2 Vas Deferens, 2 Bulbourethral glands, and Prostate Gland.
6)Define Testicular Carcinoma. Cancer of 1 or both testicles. Most common cancer found in men under 40.
7)Explain Urology Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the urinary system and male reproductive system.
8) Explain BPH. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. enlargement of prostate gland.
9) Explain Chlamydia. Bacterial infections causing genital inflammation in males and females. Can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females and eventual infertility.
10)Explain Genital Herpes. Spreading skin disease that can appear like a blister of vesicle on the genital region of males and females; may spread to other areas of the body. Caused by a sexually transmitted virus.
11)What is the purpose of the PSA procedure? Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood test to screen for prostate cancer. Elevated blood levels of PSA are associated with prostate cancer.
12)What is the purpose of the DRE procedure? Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) is a manual examination for an enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating (feeling) the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum.
13)Explain the condition tubal pregnancy. It is a condition when the fertilized egg adheres or implants to the uterine tube instead of moving into the uterus.
14)What is the purpose of the ovaries in the female reproductive system? Produce Ova and Female Sex Hormones.
15)In which stage of pregnancy can congenital anomalies and birth defects occur? During the embryo stage of gestation, the organs and organ systems of the body are formed. Therefore, this is a very common time for congenital anomalies, or birth defects, to occur. This may happen before the woman is even aware of being pregnant.
16)Explain the process of labor. Labor is the actual process of expelling the fetus from the uterus and through the vagina.
17)Explain the 3 stages of labor. The 3 stages of labor are: Dilation, Expulsion, and Placental. Dilation - Uterine Contractions dilate cervix. Expulsion - Birth of baby or expulsion. Placental - Delivery of placenta.
18)Explain Colostrum. Thin fluid first secreted by the breast after delivery. It does not contain much protein but is rich in antibodies.
19)Explain Ovarian Cyst. Cyst that develops within the ovary. These may be multiple cysts and may rupture, causing pain and bleeding.
20)Explain Fibroid Tumor. Benign tumor or growth that contains fiber-like tissue. Uterine fibroid tumors are the most common tumors in women.
21)The endocrine system consists of which glands? 2 adrenal glands, 4 parathyroid glands, pancreas, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thymus gland and thyroid. (2 Ovaries - Female & 2 Testes in Male)
22)What is the purpose/function of Glucagon? Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood.
23)What is the purpose/function of Progesterone? Prepares for conditions of pregnancy.
24)Explain the acronym DI. Diabetes insipidus is a result of the inadequate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland.
25) Explain the condition called Tetany. Nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia. Hypoparathyroidism is one cause of tetany.
26) Which cells are critical to a human having a health immune system? Thymic Lymphocytes or T CELLS.
27)A lack of iodine in the diet can lead to which type of disorders? A lack of iodine in the diet can lead to thyroid disorders, including goiter.
28)Explain Cushings syndrome. Set of symptoms caused excessive levels of cortisol due to high doses of corticosteroid drugs and adrenal tumors. The syndrome may present symptoms of weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discolorations, and osteoporosis.
29)Explain Diabetes Mellitus. Chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia and glycosuria. There are 2 distinct forms of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 & 2.
30)What is the purpose of a blood serum test? Blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. Used to assist in determining the function of various endocrine glands.
31)What is the purpose of a fasting blood sugar test? Blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12 hour fast.
32)What is the purpose of GTT? Glucose Tolerance Test. A test to determine the blood sugar level. Used for diabetic patients to determine their insulin response to glucose.
33)The nervous system is subdivided into which two systems? Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
34)How did Neuroglial Tissue receive its name? Name given as a result of its functions, this tissue holds neurons together. The term literally means "nerve glue.:
35)Describe the 4 sections of the brain. Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, and Brain Stem.
36)Where is the frontal lobe of the brain located? Most anterior portion of the cerebrum.
37)Where it the parietal lobe of the brain located? Most superior portion of the cerebrum.
38)Where is the occipital lobe of the brain located? Most posterior portion of the cerebrum.
39)Where it the temporal lobe of the brain located? Left and right lateral portion of the cerebrum.
40)Describe the 4 parts of the cerebral hemisphere. Frontal - controls motor function, personality, and speech. Parietal - receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language. Occipital - controls vision. Temporal - controls hearing and smell.
41)Describe the 5 types of meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Dura Mater (tough mother), Subdural Space, Arachnoid layer (spiderlike), Subarachnoid space, and Pia mater (soft Mother).
42)Describe 5 cranial nerves and their functions. Olfactory/transport impulses for sense smell. Optic/carries impulses for sense sight. Facial/controls facial muscles for expression, salivations, & taste on 2/3s of tongue. Accessory/controls the neck&shoulder muscles. Hypoglossal/controls tongue muscles.
43)Describe the nerves included in the PNS The Peripheral Nervous System includes both the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the 31 pairs of spinal nerves. A nerve is a group or bundle of axon fibers located outside the CNS that carries messages between the CNS and the various parts of the body.
44)Define Medullary. Pertaining to the medulla oblongata.
45)Define Cerebral. Pertaining to the cerebrum.
46)Define Cerebral Contusion Bruising of the brain from a blow or impact.
47)How can a brain tumor become fatal? Intracranial mass, either benign or malignant. A benign tumor of the brain can still be fatal since it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue.
48)Define CVA. Cerebrovascular accident. development of an infarct due to loss in the blood supply to an area in the brain.
49) Define CP Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive brain damage resulting from a defect, trauma, or oxygen deprivation at the time of birth.
50)Describe 5 signs and symptoms of a concussion. Headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and balance problems. Also called mild traumatic brain injury (TBI)
51)Shingles are caused by which HSV virus/infection of the nerve root? Caused by a Herpes zoster virus infection of the nerve root.
52)Define Spina Bifida. Congential defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which the laminae of the vertebra do not meet or close.
53)What is the purpose of an EEG? Electroencephalography is to record the electrical activity of the brain. May be used in sleep studies to determine if there is a normal patter of activity during sleep.
54)What is the purpose of a LP? Lumbar Puncture is a puncture with a needle into the lumbar area (usually 4th intervertebral space) to withdraw fluid for examination and for the injection of anesthesia. Also called Spinal puncture or spinal tap.
55)Describe the 4 major structures which play a vital role in vision? Eyes Muscles, Eyelids, Conjunctiva, and Lacrimal Apparatus.
56)Describe the 3 layers of the eyeball. Sclera, Choroid, and the Retina.
57)Describe the 4 mechanisms of a proper vision. 1. Coordination of the external eye muscles so that both eyes move together. 2. The correct amount of light admitted by the pupil. 3. The correct focus of light on the retina by the lens. 4. The optic nerve transmitting sensory images to the brain.
58)Define Corneal Abrasion. Scraping injury to the cornea. If it does not heal, it may develop into an ulcer.
59)Define Astigmatism. Condition in which light rays are focused unevenly on the retina, causing a distorted image, due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea.
60)Define Photophobia. Although the term translates into fear of light, it actually means a strong sensitivity to bright light.
61)What is glaucoma? Increase in intraocular pressure, which, if untreated, may result in atrophy (wasting away) of the optic nerve and blindness. Treated w/medication & surgery.
62)What is the visual acuity of a legally blind person? Usually defined as having visual acuity of 20/200 that cannot be improved with corrective lenses or having a visual field of less than 20 degrees.
63)Why would an individual have LASIX surgery? Correction of myopia using laser surgery to remove corneal tissue.
64)Define keratoplasty. Surgical repair of the cornea is the simple translation of this term tat is utilized to mean corneal transplant.
65)Define the acronym OD and OS. OD - Right Eye. OS - Left Eye.
Created by: Theresahope