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The Nervous System

Body Structures Chapters 10 + 11 Page 219

Nerve cells are AKA neurons.
The axon is the portion of a neuron that carries impulses from one neuron to the next.
The axon is surrounded by a protective lipoprotein called myelin sheaths.
The myelin sheaths allow nerve impulses to travel at 200 miles/second.
Unmyelinated nerve impulses travel at 0.5 meter/second.
A degenerative nerve disease caused by a degradation of the myelin sheaths is called multiple sclerosis (MS).
CNS stands for central nervous system.
The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
The brain makes ____________ calculations/second to maintain body functions. 100 trillion
The brain contains 100,000,000,000 neurons.
The PNS stands for peripheral nervous system.
The PNS is made up of all the nerves except the brain and spinal cord.
The PNS is made up of 1. Sensory neurons AKA afferent neurons. 2. Motor neurons AKA efferent neurons.
Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit changes in the environment to the brain for interpretation.
Changes in the environment are called stimuli.
Motor (efferent) neurons transmit commands from the brain to the muscles to facilitate movement.
Smooth voluntary muscle movements are greatly influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter dopamine.
A disease caused by a deficiency of dopamine is called Parkinson’s disease (PD).
The ANS stands for autonomic nervous system.
The ANS is considered involuntary (reflex).
These reflexes include: coughing, choking, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting.
The ANS is subdivided into the 1. Sympathetic division AKA “fight or flight reactions.” 2. The parasympathetic division.
The sympathetic division uses a neurotransmitter (chemical) called norepinephrine (NE) to transmit impulses.
The parasympathetic division uses a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (Ach) to transmit impulses.
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations (“rest and digest”) and includes: a. Digestive processes. b. Reproductive processes. c. Eupnea. d. Normal heart rate (HR).
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (“fight or flight”) response are: a. Tachycardia. b. Tachypnea. c. Bronchodilation. d. Pupillary dilation. e. Pallor due to shunting of blood from the periphery to the large muscles of the arms and legs, brain, heart, and lungs.
The largest part of the brain is called the cerebrum.
The outer portion of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex.
The cerebrum is divided into right and left halves called hemispheres.
These hemispheres are connected and communicate by the corpus callosum.
Sections of the brain are called lobes.
The frontal lobe controls: 1. Voluntary muscle function. 2. Moods. 3. Aggression. 4. Smell reception (olfactory). 5. Motivation.
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as: 1. Touch. 2. Pain. 3. Balance. 4. Taste. 5. Temperature.
The temporal lobes evaluate: 1. Hearing input. 2. Smell. 3. Memory. 4. Judgment.
The occipital lobe functions in receiving and interpreting visual input.
Depression, migraines, anxiety, appetite, sexuality, and bipolar disorder are influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter serotonin.
The second largest portion of the brain is called the cerebellum.
The cerebellum is located at the posterior base of the brain.
The cerebellum functions as a reflex center for coordination and balance.
The brain stem consists of the: 1. Medulla oblongata. 2. Pons Varolii. 3. Midbrain.
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling: 1. Consciousness and arousal. 2. Regulation of diameter of blood vessels (BP). 3. Heart rate (HR). 4. Ventilation (breathing).
The midbrain acts as the connection between the cerebrum and the spinal cord.
The thalamus is the principal relay station for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus controls: 1. The pituitary gland. 2. Feelings of rage and aggression. 3. Body temperature. 4. Thirst. 5. Sleep. 6. Food intake (satiation).
The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata.
The length of the spinal cord is approximately 16 -18 inches.
The function of the spinal cord is to 1. Convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain. 2. Conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery.
Branching off the spinal cord are the 31 paired spinal nerves.
Most spinal nerves exit the vertebral column between the adjacent vertebrae.
Spinal nerves consist of: 8 cervical pairs. 12 thoracic pairs. 5 lumbar pairs. 5 sacral pairs. 1 coccygeal pair.
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by protective membranes called meninges.
The outermost meninx is called the dura mater (tough mother).
The middle meninx is called the arachnoid membrane (spider layer).
The innermost meninx is called the pia mater (delicate mother).
Between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane is the subdural space.
The subdural space contains serous fluid.
Between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space.
The subarachnoid space contains CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).
CSF circulates around the brain and spinal cord through cavities called ventricles.
The CSF serves as a shock absorber and circulates nutrients.
The brain has 12 cranial nerves I. Olfactory(S), II. Optic(S), III. Oculomotor(M),IV. Trochlear(M),V. Trigeminal(B) VI. Abducens (M) VII. Facial (B) VIII. Auditory (Vestibulocochlear) (S) IX. Glossopharyngeal (B) X. Vagus (B) XI. Spinal accessory (M), XII. Hypoglossal (M)
Created by: willowsalem