Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Macular pathology

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy: signs and symptoms pincushion metamorphopsia<br>decreased color vision<br>relative central scotoma<br><b>no pain or inflammation</b><br>hyperopic shift<br>unilateral<br>RPE mottling<br>yellow-white subretinal deposits
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy: etiology <b>not edema, just a leak</b><br>accumulation of fluid under macula results in separation of photoreceptor outer segments from RPE<br>results in loss of foveal reflex
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy: demographics 20-30 year old<br>usually white males<br>type A personality<br>higher incidence with oral steroid use
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy: NaFl angiography results classic smokestack<br>NaFl moves upward due to convection
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy: Treatment resolves spontaneously in 3-4 months<br>monitor every 6-8 weeks until resolution
Macular hole: signs and symptoms abrupt loss of central VA<br>central scotoma<br>metamorphopsia<br>macula appears redder than normal with surrounding ring of detached retinal tissue<br>hyperfluorescent window defect with NaFl angiography
Macular hole: etiology and mechanism vitreous shrinks with age<br>this creates foveal traction<br>traction pulls macula and creates a hole
Macular hole: stages Stage 1 - Tractional foveal detachment<br>Stage 2 - Partial thickness hole<br>Stage 3 - Full thickness hole<br>Stage 4 - Full thickness hole with vitreous separation
Macular hole: treatment vitrectomy to relieve traction
Epiretinal membrane: signs and symptoms can be asymptomatic<br>may have metamorphopsia<br>may have severe visual impairment<br>uneven, reflective surface<br>acuity is too good to be a macular hole
Epiretinal membrane a.k.a. cellophane retinopathy<br>surface wrinkling retinopathy
AMD: risk factors age (>60 years)<br>fair skin<br>light iris<br>HTN<br>smoking<br>arteriosclerosis<br>exposure to sunlight<br>family history
AMD: Characteristics of Dry AMD Dry AMD:<br>80% of cases are dry<br>drusen (macula, Bruch's, or RPE)<br>etiology: photoreceptor atrophy<br>show-through/window defect in NaFl angiography
Wet AMD: etiology VEGF released<br>abnormal vessel growth under retina<br>leakage, bleeding, scarring<br>serous retinal detachment<br>hemorrhagic retinal detachment<br>soft drusen give new vessels a place to grow
Wet AMD: signs confluent, large drusen<br>metamorphopsia from leaky vessels under retina<br>Signet's ring sign (grey/green, neo)
What is the most common retinal degeneration? Retinitis pigmentosa
Most common type of photoreceptor dystrophies<br>rod-cone or rods only or cones only? rod-cone
Retinitis pigmentosa: mode of inheritance: autosomal dominant (22%)<br>autosomal recessive (16%)<br>X-linked (9%)<br>remainder are "simplex" (unknown inheritance)
Retinitis pigmentosa: signs and symptoms night blindness<br>tunnel vision<br>ring scotoma<br>bilateral, slowly progressive vision loss<br>bony spicules<br>arteriolar attenuation<br>waxy pallor of ONH
Usher's Syndrome defined: Retinitis pigmentosa with associated hearing loss
Usher's Syndrome: mode of inheritance autosomal recessive
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: signs polydactyly (not in Lawrence-Moon)<br>severe VA/VF loss by middle age<br>mental retardation<br>retinitis pigmentosa<br>hypogonadism<br>obesity<br>paraplegia<br>salt and pepper fundus
Congenital Stationary Night Blindness: mode of inheritance X-linked recessive
Congenital Stationary Night Blindness: signs normal looking fundus<br>highly myopic<br>ERG is negative (like CRAO and X-linked retinoschisis)
Stargardt Macular Dystrophy: signs <b>beaten bronze appearance</b><br>pisciform lesions (looks like scales) around macula at level of RPE<br>bilateral<br>symmetrical<br>central vision loss (BVA 20/40 - 20/200)<br>teen or young adult
Stargardt Macular Dystrophy: diagnostic tests <b>Sita Standard 10-2</b><br>normal color vision until later stage<br>NaFl Angiography shows dark choroid at posterior pole<br>ERG normal or minimal loss
Stargardt Macular Dystrophy: mode of inheritance autosomal recesive
Most common inherited macular dystrophy: Stargardt's
Best's Disease a.k.a. vitelliform macular dystrophy
Best's Disease vs. Adult Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: smaller "egg yolks"<br><b>EOG is normal!</b>
Familial Drusen vs. Age-related drusen Familial drusen stretches to macula and nasal to optic disc
Which macular dystrophy affects Mueller cells? Dominant Cystoid Macular Edema
Sorsby's Macular Dystrophy: mechanism lipid deposits between Bruch's and RPE<br>starts as fine drusen or confluent plaque<br>progresses to exudative maculopathy with geographic atrophy and scars
North Carolina Macular Dystrophy defined macular coloboma<br>non-progressive<br>
Best's Disease: signs large, yellow, yolk-like, bilateral lesions at macula<br>appears during childhood<br><b>EOG: Arden ratio lower than 1.5 (as opposed to normal ~1.8)</b><br>EOG differentiates Best's from Stargardt
Created by: lastscout