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the Gilded Age


Gross National Product (GNP) total value of goods & services produced by a country during a year
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone -AT&T
Thomas Alva Edison light bulb + >1000 other inventions Menlo Park was his work shop
Laissez-faire policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy
Pacific Railway Act provided for the construction of a transcontinental rail road by 2 corporations
Cornelius Vanderbilt 1 of the most successful RR consolidators. by 1869 he'd purchased and merged 3 NY RRs
Robber Barons people who loot an industry and give nothing back
Jay Gould Most notorious corrupt RR owner
Credit Mobilier Corruption in the RR industry became public in 1872 when this scandal erupted
Stock money or capital invested or available for investment or trading
consumers people buying products
Pools agreements to keep prices at a certain level
Andrew Carnegie U.S. STEEL president of Penn. RRs
John D. Rockefeller STANDARD OIL completed horizontal integration
Vertical Integration to take over the companies that produce your product
Horizontal Integration taking over all the other businesses also selling your product
Trusts a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition
Holding Company a company whose primary business is owning a controlling share of stock in other companies
Deflation a rise in the value of money prices drop
Inflation drop in the value of money prices rise
Trade Unions created by craft workers
Industrial Unions united all workers in a particular industry
Blacklist list of "trouble makers"-people who tried to make unions
Lockouts companies locked out workers out of the property & refused to pay them
Marxism believed workers should revolt/seize control of factories & over through the Gov.
Great Railroad Strike Baltimore and Ohio RR announced it was cutting wages- WV workers walked off the Job and blocked the tracks
Knights of Labor Founded in '69 took a different approach to labor issues
The Homestead Strike Seeking to break union b/c they had such bad pay for long dangerous work -carnegie
The Pullman Strike RR strike
American Federation of Labor (AFL) Most dominent union
Samuel Gompers 1st president pf AFL
Bessemer Process Carnegie's efficient way of making steel
Henry Ford model T, ford company
Model T automobile built by Ford Motor company form 1908-1927
J.P. Morgan bought out Carnegie and now managed U.S.STEEL
U.S. Steel Carnegie's steel company-most successful
Standard Oil Rockefeller's oil company- by 1880 controlled 90% of all oil-refinerie
Social Darwinism "Survival of the fittest"
"Gospel of Wealth" union believed in philanthropy carnegie wanted people to help themselves
Monopoly total control of a type of company
Pinkerton Detective Agency "we never sleep" people who attacked carnegie's workers (for him)
Ellis/Angel Island Ellis-eastern island for immigrants to pass through to come to the u.s. Angel-western, mostly chinese/other asian countries passes through to come to the u.s.
Nativism Hostility towards immigrants
Chinese Exclusion Act Didn't allow chinese to come to the U.S.
Skyscrapers the innovation for cities to move upwards and not outward
Tenements Poor living houses for people in cities with little money
Political Machine organization linked to a political party that often control local Gov.
Party Bosses person in control of a political machine
Gilded Age Phrase made by Mark Twain about this time period
Mark Twain writer, labeled the Gilded Age
Sherman Antitrust Act The Gov.'s way of dealing with monopolies- not very affective
Central Park Park in NY to help the city feel more like home
Jacob Riis created How the other half Lives
How the Other Half Lives picture book of poverty in the U,S.
William M. Tweed "The Boss"
Vaudeville popular T.V. show
Coney Island First amusement park in NY
Grangers patrons of Husbandry
Farmer's Alliance about 1.2million men by 1890-democrats warned whited about "Black Republican"
Populist/People's Party created by farmer because they wanted more representation in washington
William Jennings Bryan populist presidential canidate-lost to McKinley
William Mckinley President- got shot
segregation separation by race
Poll Tax a tax fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person the person could vote
Jim Crow Laws laws created to enforce segregation
Plessy Vs. Ferguson court case: Plessy charged b/c he had to sit in a separate cart from whites on a train established "separate but equal" laws-didn't work well
Lynching public hangings
Ida B. Wells used press to end violence for african Americans, she was a fiery young African American woman
Brooker T. Washington said for African Americans to focus on economic goals and not political goals
W.E.B. Du Bios leader of the new generation of African Americans wrote "the souls of Black Folk"-1908 worked towards African American Rights
Created by: Emmalie