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Mesopotamia stuff

empire a large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single ruler or goverment
pictograph a symbol that stands for an object
polytheism the belief that there are many gods
ziggurat an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower with outside staircases and a shrine at the top
cuneiform writing that uses wedgeshaped characters
scribe a person who writes
epic a long poem in dignified language that tells the story of a hero
economy the way a region or country uses resources to provide and sell or trade goods and services to meet people's needs and wants
six characteristics of civilization geographic boundries and political institutions, economy that produces a food surplus, concentration of population in distinct areas or cities, existence of social classes, developed culture, a system of record keeping
middle east bodies of water red sea, medditerranean sea, black sea, caspian sea, persian gulf, tigris river, eupharates river
roles of priests in early city-states ruling city-states, running irrigation canals, storing grain surplus in temples, distributing it during droughts/hard times, collecing taxes, praying, and making sacrifies
land in the north plateau
land in the south plain
climate problems ancient sumerians faced hot summers, little rain, parched and dry land, unpredictable flooding, few resources
positive feature rich soil spread by flooding
lugal-gal big man, military leaders that eventually became king
geograhic boundries and political institution zagros mountains (east), arabian peninsula (desert, west), empire, city-state, priests ruled, before kings, lugal-gal became kings
economy that produces a food surplus irrigation; invention of plow and wheel; crops grown: wheat, barley, figs, berries, and dates; led to specialization of labor (and vice versa)
concentration of population civilizations worked together to keep irrigation canals clear; rivers drew people in, source of fresh water; fertile cresent; trade easier because of less travel
existence of social classes priests, before kings (highest); lugal-gal to king; goverment officials, scribes; merchants, traders, artisans; farmers; slaves (lowest)
well developed culture ziggurat, arch, polytheism, priests, each city-state had one god, epics
system of record keeping scribes, cuneiform (1st written language), pictographs, record of rivers flooding, literature, history