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Body Functions -Chapter 14 Page 331

The oral cavity refers to the mouth
Two structures located at the posterior portion of the oral cavity are the palatine tonsils.
The tonsils are lymph tissue.
Lymph tissue is part of your immune system.
The nasal cavities refer to the nose
The two meati of the nasal cavities are called nostrils or external nares.
The hairs found lining the nasal cavities act as screening devices.
The nasal cavities are separated by the nasal septum.
The nasal cavities house the sense of smell referred to as the olfactory sense.
The nasal cavities are lined with mucous membranes.
Mucous membranes produce mucus
The pharynx is AKA throat
The oropharynx refers to the oral cavity (mouth) and pharynx (throat).
Nasopharyngeal means pertaining to the nasal cavity (nose) and pharynx (throat).
The adenoids are located in the nasopharynx
The adenoids are lymph tissue.
Lymph tissue is part of your immune system.
The nasopharynx also houses two ducts that lead to the middle ears called Eustachian tubes.
The function of the Eustachian tubes is to equalize pressure between the middle ear and the outside environment in order to prevent tympanorrhexis.
The larynx is AKA “vocal cords” or “voice box.”
The larynx connects the pharynx with the trachea.
Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx) refers to the larynx and pharynx.
The larynx is supported by pieces of cartilage.
These pieces of cartilage are called: 1. The thyroid cartilage. 2. The epiglottis. 3. The cricoid cartilage.
The largest piece of cartilage is the thyroid cartilage AKA “Adam’s apple.”
The epiglottis is the “lid over the larynx.”
The epiglottis is designed to open when we breathe and close when we swallow.
The glottis is the space between the larynx (vocal cords).
The trachea is AKA the “windpipe.”
The bronchi are the two main airway branches that bifurcate off the trachea.
These two main branches are called the right primary bronchus and the left primary bronchus.
On entering the lungs the primary bronchi divide to form smaller bronchi called the secondary (lobar) bronchi.
The secondary or lobar bronchi continue to branch forming even smaller bronchi called tertiary (segmental) bronchi.
Tertiary or segmental bronchi divide into smaller branches called bronchioles
Bronchioles finally branch into even smaller tubes called terminal bronchioles.
The terminal bronchioles subdivide into microscopic branches called respiratory bronchioles.
These respiratory bronchioles further subdivide into alveolar ducts.
The alveolar ducts house the alveoli in the alveolar sacs.
The alveolar sacs house the alveoli.
This continuous branching of the trachea is referred to as the “bronchial tree.”
It is estimated that the average number of alveoli in a human is 30 million
Every alveolus is surrounded by capillaries.
The alveoli are where respiration occurs.
Respiration is the exchange of gases.
The gases that are exchanged are oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Respiration involves two processes: 1. External respiration which is the exchange of gases that occurs between the lungs and the blood. 2. Internal respiration which is the exchange of gases that occurs between the blood and body cells.
Every cell of the body is surrounded by capillaries.
The actual exchange of the respiratory gases between the lungs, blood, and cells occurs by diffusion.
Diffusion means the process in which particles in a fluid or gas move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The cavity where the respiratory organs are found is the thoracic cavity.
The lungs are divided into sections called lobes.
The right lung has 3 lobes (RUL, RML, RLL).
The left lung has 2 lobes (LUL, LLL).
The primary bronchi are lined with small hair-like structures called cilia
The purpose of the cilia is to catch foreign particles that are inhaled during inspiration.
As the cilia becomes saturated from the inhaled particles the mucous membranes that line the respiratory tract will produce mucus
The purpose of the mucus is to trap the foreign particles.
When enough mucus is produced the nervous system will trigger the cough reflex.
The person then has two choices: 1. Cough the mucus up and spit it out. 2. Cough the mucus up and swallow it
A productive cough refers to a cough where sputum is produced.
A non-productive cough refers to a dry cough (no sputum) such as croup (bark-like cough).
Antitussive refers to a cough suppressant.
The act of coughing up mucus is called expectoration (expectorate).
The mucus expectorated is called sputum or phlegm.
Normal sputum (phlegm) appears clear or white.
Mucopurulent refers to mucus and pus.
Hemoptysis means expectorating blood.
Yellow, green, or pungent sputum (phlegm) can indicate infection
C+S stands for culture and sensitivity.
A C+S is performed to grow antigens and determine the best antibiotic to treat the infection.
Two membranous layers surround each lung called pleurae.
The purpose of the pleurae is to protect the lungs from the ribs.
The outermost pleural layer is called the parietal pleura.
The innermost pleural layer is called the visceral pleura.
Between the parietal and visceral pleurae is a space called the pleural cavity (space).
The pleural cavity (space) contains pleural fluid (lubricating fluid) to prevent friction between the parietal and visceral pleurae during ventilation
Ventilation refers to breathing.
PFT stands for pulmonary function tests.
Incentive spirometry (IS) is a test to measure the ability to self ventilate.
tidal volume (TV) the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal ventilation.
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) the volume of air that can be inhaled beyond a normal resting inspiration.
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) the volume of air that can be exhaled beyond a normal resting expiration.
The process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called ventilation (breathing).
The two phases of ventilation are inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation (expiration).
In 60 years the average person will ventilate 700,000,000 times.
The muscles primarily responsible for ventilation are the: 1. Diaphragm. 2. Internal and external intercostals.
Ventilation is controlled by the respiratory center located in the medulla oblongata.
A ventilator refers to a device that pushes air in and out of the lungs.
Intubation (intubate) the process of inserting a tube
Intubation usually refers to an endotracheal tube (ET).
The instrument used to insert an endotracheal tube (ET) is called a laryngoscope.
Ambu bag refers to a bag that is used to ventilate an apnic patient.
ABGs stands for arterial blood gases.
oxygen saturation (SaO2) the amount of oxygen (O2) that has combined with (saturated) hemoglobin
percentage of carbon dioxide (PCO2) the amount or percentage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has combined with hemoglobin.
A nebulizer is a a device that delivers vaporized medicine (vaporizer).
CXR stands for chest X-ray.
NPPV stands for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (a respiratory Tx).
Oximetry refers to the process of measuring oxygen.
Rales refers to crackling sounds heard during auscultation.
Auscultation means listening with a stethoscope.
Rhonchi refers to wheezing.
Stridor refers to a high pitched sound indicative of airway obstruction
RT (IT) stands for respiratory therapy (inhalation therapy).
C-PAP stands for continuous positive airway pressure
C-PAP is a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Created by: willowsalem