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FBSF Chapter 18

The Reproductive System Chapter 18

The process by which a single cell duplicates its genetic material is called mitosis
The replication process(mitosis) gives humans a new body every 10 years
The duplicated(mitotic) cells contain 46 chromosomes(groups of genes)
A special type of cellular division that produces the sex cells (spermatozoa & ova) is called meiosis
Meiotic cells(spermatozoa & ova) contain 23 chromosomes
The primary sex organs of the male reproductive system are the paired male gonads AKA testes(testicles) (testis-singular)
Oxygenated blood is transported to the testes (plural) via the testicular arteries
Deoxygenated blood is transported away from the testes(plural) via the testicular veins
The testes(plural) are responsible for producing 1) Spermatozoa 2) Testosterone
Spermatozoa are male sperm cells
The part of a testicle where spermatogenesis occurs is called the seminiferous tubules
Spermatozoa are produced at a rate of about 300 million/day
Spermatozoa have three distinct parts called the 1) The head 2) The midpiece 3) The flagellum(tail) (whip)
Each head contains chromosomes
Chromosomes contain genes
Genes contain DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)
Each midpiece contains the energy (ATP) for locomotion
The function of each flagellum(singular)(tail/whip) (flagella-plural) is to propel a spermatozoon(singular) up the female reproductive tract
Developing spermatozoa(plural) are stored in a comma shaped structure adjacent to each testicle called the epididymis(mature/rippen)
An epididymis is a tube(duct) whose length is approximately 20 feet long
It takes the spermatozoa approximately 20 days to move through the epididymis tube(duct)
The spermatozoa travel from the epididymes(plural) to the urethra via the Vasa deferentia AKA seminal ducts AKA ductus deferentes (all are plural) vas deferens AKA seminal duct AKA ductus deferens(singular)
Surgical removal of a section from both seminal ducts causing sterility(infertility) is called a bilateral vasectomy
A Bilateral vasectomy will not affect the sex drive(libido) or secondary sexual characteristics
Each seminal duct, testicular artery, and testicular vein is surrounded by a protective sheath called the spermatic cord
The vessels responsible for the expulsion of the spermatozoa into the urethra is called the ejaculatory ducts
The liquid portion of the ejaculate is called the semen AKA seminal fluid
The average volume of semen per ejaculation is 2.5-6 mL
The number of spermatozoa ejaculated can be in excess of 300 million
Only thousands reach the cervix
Only a few hundred reach the ovum(egg)
If the number of spermatozoa falls below 20 million, the male is considered sterile(infertile)
Once ejaculated the spermatozoa can live inside the reproductive tract for approximately 48-72 hours
Large numbers of spermatozoa are required to fertilize and ovum(egg-singular) because the ovum(singular) has a protective membrane that must be broken down by an enzyme secreted from the head of each spermatozoon(singular)
The characteristics of seminal fluid(semen) include: *Milky in color *viscous(thick) *sticky because it contains fructose(energy for the spermatozoa) *alkaline so it can neutralize the acidity of the vaginal secretions & urine
Additonal characteristics of seminal fluid(semen) include contains seminalplasmin/capability of protecting spermatozoa by destroying certain bacteria found in vaginal tract/semen *contains enzymes/activate spermatozoa after ejaculation *contains prostaglandins/promote muscular contractions of female gential tr
Semen is produced by the prostate *seminal vesicles *Bulbourethral glands AKA Cowper glands
The prostate is a donut-shaped gland approximately the size and shape of a chestnut
The prostate surrounds the superior portion of the urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder
The seminal vesicles are paired pouch-like structures approximately 2 inches in length located posterior to and at the base of the urinary bladder in front of the rectum
The bulbourethral(cowper) glands are paired glands the size of peas and are located just inferior to the prostate
Testosterone is the male sex hormone
The part of each testicle that produces testosterone is called the interstital cells of Leydig
The functions of testosterone include develop & maintain male sex organs*descent(just before birth) of the testes from the abdominopelvic cavity into the scrotum*broadening the shoulders & narrowing the hips during puberty*Protein build muscles producing muscular bulk/firmness in the physique
Additional functions of testosterone include Maturation of the spermatozoa*enlargement of the thyroid cartilate(adam's apple)*deepening of the voice*influending aggressive behavior*causing facial-body-public hair to appear*stimulates the sexual drive(libido)
An outpouching of loose skin from the pelvic wall which supports & contains the testes is called the scrotum
Internally the scrotum is separated into two sacs by a septum(wall)
Each sac contains a testis(testicle)
The scrotum lies outside of the body because spermatozoa & testosterone production require a temperature -3F lower than normal body temperature
Depending on the temperature, the scrotum has the ability to contract & relax
The urethra in males is the vessel that carries urine, spermatozoa, & semen to the outside world
The length of the male urethra is approximately 8 inches
The male urethra is subdivided into three parts Prostatic urethra which is surrounded by the prostate*membranous urethra which runs from the prostatic urethra to the penis*spongy or cavernous urethra found inside the penis & terminates at the male urethral orifice(meatus, os)
The penis is designed to introduce spermatozoa into the femal reproductive tract
The penis consists of the shaft whose distal portion is slightly enlarged called the glans penis
Covering the glans penis is a section of loose skin called the prepuce(forskin)
Internally the penis is composed of three cylindrical masses of spongy tissue containing blood sinus
Sexual stimulation causes the penile arteries to dilate allowing large quanities of blood to enter the penis
Expansion of the blood sinuses compress the penile veins
when the penile arteries dilate and the expansion of the sinuses compress the penile veins this causes an erection
Once sexual stimulation ceases, the penile arteries will constrict
The penile veins drain the blood and the erection is lost
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection is called impotence AKA Erectile Dysfunction(ED)
Impotence(Erectile Dysfunction/ED) can be caused by Poorly controlled stress*Trauma to the nerves controlling blood flow to the penis*Diabetes Mellitus(DM)*Arteriosclerosis of the arteries that supply blood to the penis*side effects from certain medicaitons such as antihypertensives & antidepressants
Viagra, Cialis & Levitra work by causing vasodilation of the arteries supplying the penis
The primary sex organs of the female reproductive system are the paired female gonads called ovaries
The ovaries are the size of unshelled almonds
The ovaries are located in the superior portion of the pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus
A structure that attaches an ovary to the uterus is called the utero-ovarian ligament
The ovaries are responsible for 1. Oogenesis(creation of ova) 2. Production of the female sex hormones estrogen & progesterone
Immature ova are called oocytes(egg cells)
Developing ova are referred to as follicles(developing oocyte)
The pituitary gland produces a homone responsible for maturation of a follicle called FSH (Follicle Stimulation Hormone) and is released approximately every 28 days
The pituitary gland produces a hormone that stimulation ovulation called LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
Expulsion of an ovum from the ovary is called ovulation
The average female can ovulate approximatley 450 times in a lifetime
Usually the ovaries alternate ovulations
If the ovaries ovulate at the same time and the two ova are fertilized, the result will be fraternal(dizygotic) twins
If a fertilized ovum splits it's genetic material(DNA) into two separate ova the result will be identical(monozygotic) twins
The stuctures that transports ova from the ovaries to the uterus are called the fallopian tubes AKA uterine tubes AKA oviducts
The finger-like projections of the fallopian tubes that catch the expelled ovum are called the fimbriae
An ovum will be moved into and through an oviduct by 1. A waving action of the fimbriae 2. Ciliary action 3. Peristalsis
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as 1.Menstruation(menses) 2.Breast development 3.Pubic, body, & axillary hair 4.Pelvic bones widen 5.Fat deposits(adipose tissue) in the skin causes a "soft look"
Union of a sperm with an ovum is called fertilization(conception)
Development of a fertilized ovum is called gestation or pregnancy
The uterus is AKA the womb
The uterus is located in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder & the rectum
The uterus is the shape of an inverted pear
The uterus should be angled forward in an anteflexion position
The uterus is where the fertilized ovum will 1.Implant 2.Develop into a zygote, embryo & fetus 3.Be expelled during labor
The superior portion of the uterus is called the fundus
The middle portion of the uterus is called the corpus(body)
The inferior portion(neck) of the uterus is called the cervix
The interior of the corpus(body) of the uterus is called the uterine cavity
The interior of the cervix is called the cervical canal
The opening of the cervix into the vagina is called the external os
The outermost layer of the uterus is called the perimetrium(uterine serosa)
The midde(muscle) layer of the uterus is called the myometrium
The innermost layer of the uterus is called the endometrium
The region between the uterus and rectum(recto-uterine pouch) is called the Douglas'cul-de-sac
The cyclic sloughing(shedding) of the endometrium is called menstruation(menses)
The normal menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman within a range of 24-35 days
Phases of the menstrual cycle are 1. Menstrual phase -- days 1-5 2. Pre-ovulatory phase -- days 6-13 3. Ovulatory phase -- day 14 4. Post-ovulatory phase -- days 15-28
The menstrual phase involves sloughing(shedding) of the endometrium
The pre-ovulatory phase involves regeneration of the endometrium in preparation for implantation
The ovulatory phase involves expulsion of an ovum from an ovary
The post-ovulatory phase involves 1.Endometrial hypertrophy in preparation to receive the fertilized ovum 2.Endometrial atrophy in preparation for the menstrual phase
The hormones responsible for the development of the endometrium are estrogen & progesterone
Most birth control pills(BCPs) are varying dosages of estrogen & progesterone
The tissue that will form a connection between the maternal and fetal blood supplies is called the placenta
A hormone produced by the placenta that will support the developing pregnancy is called HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) can be detected with an Early Pregnancy Test(EPT)
EPTs (Early Pregnancy Test) can be performed on a woman's urine or serum
The placenta also secretes increasing levels of estrogen and progesterone to support the pregnancy and cause 1.Breast(mammary tissue) development 2.Milk production (lactogenesis)
The vagina is a tubular structure which is lined with mucous membranes
The functions of the vagina include 1.Passageway for menstruation(menses) 2.Receptacle for the penis, semen, and sperm during intercourse(coitus, copulation) 3.Inferior portion of the birth canal
The connection between the vagina and the cervix is called the fornix
The external female genitalia is called the vulva or pudendum
The mound of elevated adipose(fat) tissue that becomes covered with pubic hair is called the mons pubis or veneris
The lips of the vaginal orifice(os) are called the labia majora(outer lips) & labia minora(inner lips)
A small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue with nerves found at the anterior junction of the labia minora is called the clitoris
The region within the labia majora and labia minora is called the vestibule
Within the vestibule is a thin fold of tissue that partially closes the distal end of the vagina called the hymen
On either side of the urethral meatus are mucus secreting (lubrication) glands called the lesser vestibular glands AKA Skene's glands
One both sides of the vaginal os are two mucus secreting (lubrication) glands called the greater vestibular glands AKA Bartholin's glands
The region between the vaginal os and the anus is usually referred to as the perineum
The perineum is also used to refer to the external urogenital and anal region of both males and females
Anterior to the pectoralis major and minor muscles of the thorax (chest) are modified sudoriferous(sweat) glands called mammary glands
Each mammary gland consists of 15-20 lobes(sections)
In each lobe are smaller compartments called lobules
The size and shape of the breasts is determined by the location and amount of adipose(fat) tissue deposited
Milk production(lactogenic) cells located in the lobules are called aveoli
The milk is stored in the ampullae AKA lactiferous sinuses
The milk travels from the alveoli to the lactiferous sinuses through the lactiferous ducts
A nipple is AKA mammary papilla
The dark pigmented region surrounding each nipple(papilla) is called the areola
The process of secreting and ejecting milk is called lactation
The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of milk(lactogenesis) is called prolactin
ART is Assisted Reproductive Technologies
IVF is In Vitro Fertilization
fertility drugs medications designed to stimulate the ovaries to ovulate
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed