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FBSF ch17

The Urinary System Chapter 17

The functions of the kidneys include Removal of nitrogenous(N) wastes from the blood *Maintaining blood volume & electrolyte(salt) balance *Maintaining pH balance of the blood acidity vs. alkalinity(base) *Production of renin *Production of eyrthropoietin *Conversion of vitamin D
Nitrogenous(N) wastes include *Urea *Uric Acid *Creatinine *Ammonia(NH3)
The electrolytes("lytes") include *Sodium(Na+) *Potassium(K+) *Chloride(Cl-) *Calcium(Ca+) *Phosphate(PO4-) *Magnesium(Mg+) *Sulfate(SO4-)
Remember where salt goes water follows
Healthy adults need no more than 2300 mg of Na+(sodium) daily(NEJM2010)
Maintaining pH balance of the blood acidity vs. alkalinity(base) by the interaction of carbonic acid(H2CO3) & bicarbonate(HCO3)(alkalinity)
Production of renin which will regulate Blood Pressure(BP)
Production of erythropoietin which aids in erythrocyte(RBCs) formation
Conversion of vitamin D into its active form is called calciferol (need vitamin D for absorption of calcium(Ca))
The paired kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal(flank) region
The right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to the large area occupied by the liver
A kidney is the size of a fist
The outer covering of each kidney is called the renal capsule
The outermost layer of each kidney is called the renal cortex
The middle layer of each kidney is called the renal medulla
A thin layer of fibrous connective tissue that anchors each kidney to surrounding structures and the abdominal wall is called renal fascia(so they stay in place)
The tubes(vessels, ducts) that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder are called ureters
Each ureter connects to a kidney at the renal pelvis
Each renal pelvis is made up of funnel shaped structures called calices(calyx/singular) (finger like stubs)
Kidney cells are called nephrons(microscopic)
Each kidney has approximately 1,000,000 (one million) nephrons
The vessels carrying oxygenated blood to be filtered by the kidneys are called the right & left renal arteries
Every minute approximately______mL of blood passes through the kidneys 1200
The fluid that the kidneys ultimately eliminate from the body is called urine
Normal urine is 1. clear or yellow 2. clean (free of pathogens)
A routine test performed on urine is called a UrinAlysis(UA)
Normal urine production is approximately 56mL/hour (approximately 60 mL--(1oz = 30mL
Urine is transported from each renal pelvis to the urinary bladder primarily by peristalsis
the urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ located posterior to the public symphysis
The average capacity of the urinary bladder is 700-800mL(about 1/2 of a 2 liter bottle)
Stretch receptors in the bladder wall will transmit nerve impulses to the lower portion of the spinal cord when the urine level reaches 200-400mL
These impulses initiate the conscious desire to urinate(micturition) or void (micturate)
The sphincters that control the flow of urine are called the internal(involuntary/no control) & external (voluntary/control) urinary(urethral) sphincters
The inability to control the urinary (urethral) sphincters is called enuresis or urinary incontinence
The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world
The opening of the urethra to the outside world is called the urinary meatus(orifice / os)
In females the urethra is approximately 1.5 inches long
The female urinary meatus is located between the clitoris & vaginal orifice
In males the urethra is approximately 8 inches long
A male urinary meatus is located at the distal(end) portion of the glans penis(enlarged tip, foreskin/prepuce)
In males the urethra carries 1.Urine 2.Spermatozoa 3.Semen
The reproductive & urinary systems are referred to as the GenitoUrinary(GU) system
Blood tests commonly used to detect Nitrogenous(N) waste include 1.BUN(Blood Urea Nitrogen) 2.Creatinine Clearance(Cc) 3.Cystatin C (Cys C) ****are all blood tests to tell if kidneys are working*****
IVP stands for IntraVenous Pyelogram (pyelo=renal pelvis)
An IntraVenous Pyelogram(renal pelvis) is an X-ray of the renal pelves after injection of an IntraVenous(IV) radiopaque dye
hematuria a condition of blood in the urine(trauma)
pyuria a condition of pus in the urine(infection)
bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
glycosuria a condition of sugar(glucose) in the urine(DM - diabetes mellitus)
ketonuria a condition of ketones(acetone) in the urine (fat metabolism)
albuminuria albumin(blood protein) in the urine
HemoDialysis(HD) artifical removal of toxins from the blood
CAPD Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
The vessels carrying deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys are called the right and left renal veins
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed