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Professor Oluwajeyem

USA, World, and Africa 1

What were some of the adaptations made in the Old Stone Age that allowed for the evolution of human development? Ability to walk upright, teeth size position, brain size, and dexterity of opposable thumb
What or who is a Raja? The Aryans king
The use of fire is associated with which human lineage? Homo Erectus
The use of tools is associated with which human lineage? Homo Habilis
What were human beings around the world capable of during the Old Stone Age? pt.1 1) Manufacturing implements made from stone or bone such as weapons, or tools. 2) Control of fire for cooking, light, and heat. 3) Developed a spoken language and gestures used to communicate.
What were human beings around the world capable of during the Old Stone Age? pt.2 4) Formulated an artistic tradition. 5) Created rituals practices connected with fertility and the burial of the dead. 6) Organized themselves into social groups for efficient collection and sharing food.
What characterized the new Stone Age? The development of agriculture techniques, domesticating animals for food consumption, which lead to the development of a more complex society. Food production also started to affect the gender roles.
What is the difference between Paleolithic and Neolithic? Humans in Paleolithic era were mainly nomadic. The Neolithic era consisted of the agricultural revolution.
How is civilization defined? Civilization is defined in terms of urbanization. Urban characteristics include specialized vocation, advances in art and technology, complex political and cultural institutions and the presence of a written language.
Which continent is the largest? Which is the 2nd largest? Asia is the largest continent in the world and Africa is the second largest.
What is the difference between a prehistoric and historic society Prehistoric is used to describe a society whose writings we have not deciphered while historic are used to describe a society whose writings we can decipher.
What is the ‘Law of Hammurabi’, what are some examples? Had evolved out of 1500 years of Mesopotamian history and was designed to regulate business, deal with feuds, crimes, slavery, adultery, divorce, legitimacy, inheritance, etc. Some crimes included harsh punishments and death.
How did Egypt get its name? The Greeks named Kemet Egypt due a temple that was built in honor of King Ptah and when the 1st Greeks came in the 7th century BCE, they referred to the land as “The land of the Temple of Ptah” which was Latinized became Aegyptus,which Egypt is derived
What are the 5 time periods that Egypt is divided into? Early Dynastic Period: 3100-2700BCE Old Kingdom: 2700-2200 BCE Middle Kingdom: 2050-1650 BCE New Kingdom: 1550-1100 BCE Post-Empire Period: 1100-30 BCE
Define polytheism and monotheism. Polytheism is the belief in many gods and monotheism is the belief in one god.
Define anthropomorphic? The gods had both human and animal features or characteristics or they could have the feature of two different animals.
What is the Kemetic symbol for life? The Ankh was the ancient kemet symbol for life.
Osiris, Isis and Horus are related to Christianity in what way? What other name are they known by? Osiris (Ausar), Isis (Aset), and Horus (Heru) are related to Christianity through the story of Jesus and the Holy Trinity. The Ankh is similar to the cross in Christianity
Who declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire Constantine declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Who were the 1st people to grow and weave cotton? The Indus Civilization
What were some of the speculated causes that ended the Indus civilization? 1) Extensive flooding due to deforestation was no cause. 2) Geological changes that caused the Arabian sea to shift cutting off trade routes
The Aryans were a class based society, what were the main four class divisions of their society? Brahmans were the priests, Kshatriyas were the warriors, Vaisyas were the landholders and artisans, and Sudras were the serfs and servants and were usually the darker skinned natives of India.
Sanskrit is what and which people used it? What are the eight chapters Sanskirt is a form of writing and all Indo-European languages are related because they all have the same common ancestor. Eight chapters was a great grammar book written in the 4th century and it standardized the language.
What is Tamil? The earliest language found at the beginning of the common era and it belongs to South India which are unrelated to the Indo-Europeans.
What are the 2 religious trends that occurred during the late Vedic age 1) Brahman religious leaders challenged the king’s pretentions to political absolutism. 2) Men not traditionally associated with religious practices challenged the tradition of religious rites and sacrifices.
What is Karma? What is Ascetics? Karma is a person’s deeds this/past life/lives affect their present/future lives. Ascetics are where men/women abandoned their material goods for a quest of wisdom and meditation.
What is the Upanishads? The greatest creation of the late Vedic era. It is a collection of 108 essays. The essays deal with ethical questions written between 800 and 300 BCE. This term refers to sitting near the teacher.
What is known as ‘China’s sorrow’? The Yellow River dominated North China and brought cruel floods.
What made Lady Hao unique Was a powerful wife of one of the shang kings. She led troop’s war, owned her estates, and was mother to some of the kings children. When she died, she was buried with 16 sacrificed humans and 6 dogs as well as about 1600 other ritual objects.
What are the 3 writing styles of the Chinese? 1. Pictographs 2. Ideographs 3.Logographs
What is the ‘mandate of heaven’? Heaven appointed a worthy man to rule and allowed him to pass on his kingship to his descendants as long as the kings ruled with compassion and justice and carried out all religious duties.
Hsia calendar is based on? Developed by? The Chinese fixed a lunar calendar 366 days to a year.
What are the Book of History(Shu Ching) and the Book of Poetry(Shih Ching) about? Written by Chou described and justified their destruction of the Shang dynasty.
The Li Chi is? The book of rituals also written by the Chou and it describes the organization of the government and rituals etc.
Feudalism is? A political/economic system devised by Chou. Land was granted to members of the court known as fiefdoms; each fiefdom was called a Kuo. The lords ruled their fiefdoms in accordance to the kings’ wishes and the people worked the lands.
Which Dynasty abolished human sacrifices? Chou Dynasty
What military accomplishments were made during the era of the warring states? The Crossbow and a longer and more powerful Composite bow were developed.
Chou Dynasty acomplishments 1) Water control such as controlling floods, allowing for irrigation. 2) Fertilization and crop rotation 3) Introduction of iron farming implements
What is the key feature of Indus civilization? Homogeneity, uniformity in civic administrations, trade, houses, and they maintained a high standard or public sanitation.
What are the Five Classics? 1. Chun Chiu (Spring and Autumn) 2. Shu Ching (Book of History) 3. Shih Ching (Book of Poetry) 4. Li Chi (Book of Rites) 5. I Ching (Book of Change)
Confucianism Believed that human nature was innately good and that it was moral education that made some people more superior. Taught that people must return to the state of virtue and live the ideal of Jen. When Jen is practiced with Li, then society will return to a
Confucianism state of Tao which is a moral way ordained by the heavens and carried out by the sage rulers. He also taught the 5 basic relationships: 1.ruler and minister 2. Father and son 3. Husband and wife 4. Elder and younger siblings 5. Friend.
Confucianism He believed that family was important and should be treated on a mini scale of the state.
Taoism The trouble with the world is that the government does too much for them. Virtue is achieved through natural instinctive qualities. Strive to return to a state before people were corrupted by follies of civilization.
What does legalism say about human nature Believed that human nature was evil, that people were naturally selfish, lazy, disobedient, and reluctant to engage in war.
How do they differ? And who established each ideology? The Confucian sage should do stuff for people while the Tao sage should do nothing at all. Confucius= Confucianism, Lao Tzo= Taoism. Legalism= Shang Yang
Legalism Organized families into mutual surveillance units, imposed harsh punishments, and rewarded informers. Emphasized rule by law. No one was above the law.
What are the types of useful citizens under legalism? 1) The farmers= created wealth, and 2) The soldiers= won wars and made the state more powerful
Abraham, Jacob, and Moses, what is their relationship to each other and the Hebrew people? Abraham led his people, the Israelites, from Urin Babylonia to Canaan (Palestine). It was Abraham grandson Jacob (also called Israel) who led the people into Egypt to escape the famine in Palestine and it was Moses who led the people out of Egypt and back
First Temple Era: The end of this era was when Chaldean King Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah in 597 BCE and 11 years later Jerusalem was destroyed and the remaining citizens were transported to Babylon.
Second Temple Era: The transported people completed a new temple with Persian approval in 516 and this is the beginning.
What is Monotheism? Belief in 1 god.
What are the Tanakh and the Torah? The Tanakh is holy scriptures and the Torah is the first 5 books of the Tanakh (Equivalent to the Old Testiment)
How many laws does Orthodox Judaism have 613
Judaism Emerged as the world’s greatest monotheism faith, the Hebrew people made their contribution to civilization not in politics or military conquest but in religion. The 10 commandments were the moral code for the people.
Judaism Scriptures reflected social attitudes: restricting the women to the home and boys were taught the Torah.
What is a Polis and who ran the Polis Greek’s independent city-states and were run by an aristocrat oligarchy.
What are Hoplites? Deployed a mass formation of heavily armed foot soldiers ,Greek’s soldiers used advanced equipment
What role or value did Greek women have? As a means of producing children and often confined to the home to ensure legitimacy of the child.
What are Hetairai and Pallakai? Sophisticated girls; concubines who could not bear legitimate children
What is the Delian League? Athens, Sparta, and 30 other city-states joined together to form a league of protection from the Persians.
Who is Socrates and what does he subscribe to? A man who questioned the right conduct of life and he believed in absolute values and he questioned and cross questioned others. This questioning was later known as Socratic method of inqury.
Who founded the Academy? Plato
Who founded Lyceum? Aristotle
What is the Socratic method of inquiry? The process of questioning and cross-questioning others.
Plato and Aristotle subscribe to which philosophies? Knowledge to concepts such as beauty, virtue, and justice. (Socrates)
The 2 most important city states in Greece were? Athens and Sparta
The Hellenistic period is from period of time? Post Classical civilization after Alexanders Death
What are the 3 kingdoms of the Hellenistic empire? 1. Macedon and Greece 2. Seleucid Empire 3.Ptolemaic Kingdom
What are the 2 main philosophies of the Hellenistic empire 1. Stoicism and 2. Epicureanism
Stoicism: Its principles are goodness is based on knowledge, a wise person lives in harmony with nature by means of one’s reason, and the only good is harmony with nature
Epicureanism: Its principles were nothing exists but atoms and void, the soul is material and disintegrates like the body, the only good life is pleasure, all actions should be aimed at minimizing pain or stress and thereby increasing pleasure
What were the 3 major groups that inhabited the Italian Peninsula during the early roman republic? 1. Etruscans: Migrated from Asia Minor 2.Greek Colonists and 3. Italic Peoples: Latin, Sables, and others.
Patricians: hereditary aristocracies that accept civic responsibly
Plebeians: majority of the population, farmers, shepherds, and small merchants
Piety is defined as what according to the Romans? A value system that embraced devotion to the gods and to the members of one’s family, living and dead. The family was a microcosmic state.
What role or value did women have in roman society? Roman women were disadvantage; they could only aspire to be head matrons
How many Punic wars were there? 3
Populares: plebeians and patricians who favored the common people
Optimates: plebeians and patricians who favored the senatorial elite
Paz Romana is? Roman Peace, economic stability, commercial and manufacturing activities that flourished and its secure trade routes.
Octavian Caesar: cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals. Monopolized power, built forums, renovated temples, improved roads, financed public games, and kept grain prices low
Marc Anthony: cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals. Defeated by Octavian
Gaius Julius Caesar: cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals; gained territory for Rome
Marcus Licinius Crassus: cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals.
cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals; defeated by Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey the Great):
Vergil was? the Aeneid is? The greatest poet; master piece of world literature
What are some of the things that led to the collapse of the Roman Empire? 1. Armed conflicts among successors militarized the civil authority of the emperor 2. Increasing defense issues from the east 3. The splitting of the Roman Empire into two 4. Debasement of coinage caused inflation
What are some of the things that led to the collapse of the Roman Empire? 5. High taxes on shrinking population of tax payers 6. Increase in spending
How was roman civilization divided? Patricians, Plebeians, Freed slaves, slaves
What is the concept of ‘Great Harmony’? Everyone is living in peace, no violence or anything. Everyone is being taking care of, an ideal society.
Created by: ANelson87