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ARCH430 Test #1

Ancient Cities

Taberna basic unit; 170 present today; (in biblical use) a fixed or movable habitation, typically of light construction
cross-vault groin vault; a vault formed by the intersection of two or more vaults; Market of Trajan constructed using this
groin-vault cross vault; Market of Trajan constructed using this.
Paleolithic Period Old Stone Age; +35,000-9,000/8,000 BC; of, relating to, or denoting the early phase of the Stone Age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used.
Old Stone Age Paleolithic Period; 35,000-9,000/8,000 BC
35,000-9,000/8,000 BC Paleolithic Period; Old Stone Age
Neolithic Period New Stone Age; 9,000-3,000 BC (or later); of, relating to, or denoting the later part of the Stone Age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed; marked by agriculture, domestication of animals, and settled village life
New Stone Age Neolithic Period; 9,000-3,000 BC (or later)
9,000-3,000 BC (or later) Neolithic Period, New Stone Age
mudbrick sun-dried brick or adobe; ex: material for White Temple at Uruk in Sumer, Zigguart of Ur, Jericho in the houses (50-70cm thick), Catal Hoyuk's walls.
sun-dried brick mudbrick or adobe; ex: Jericho, White Temple of Uruk in Sumer
flying buttresses a buttress slanting from a separate pier, typically forming an arch with the wall it supports; some scholars see the design of market of Trajan anticipating these (maybe incorrect);
corbeling a projection jutting out from a wall to support a structure above it; ex: Great Pyramid to relieve pressure and weight
post & lintel having or using a framework of upright and horizontal beams; ex: Passage Grave, Newgrange,
intramural burial burials beneath floor; ex: Ain Ghazal (Joradan) and Catalhuyuk.
megalithic of, relating to, or denoting prehistoric monuments made of or containing megaliths
Uruk an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, northwest of Ur, one of the greatest cities of Sumer. Built in the 5th millennium bc, it is associated with the hero Gilgamesh. Arabic name Warka; biblical name Erech; location of the White Temple;
orientation the determination of the relative position of something or someone; Imporatant: Great Pyramid's positioned so flat sides facing cardinal directions, Temple of Rameses II from Abu Simbel
baked brick Ex: outer layer of bitumen of the Zigguart of Ur, Summer 2.4 meters thick
bitumen a black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation. It is used for road surfacing and roofing; ex: Ishtar Gate, Babylon, Zigguart of Ur, Summer
mastaba an ancient Egyptian tomb rectangular in shape with sloping sides and a flat roof, standing to a height of 17–20 feet (5–6 m), consisting of an underground burial chamber with rooms above it (at ground level) in which to store offerings
serdab holds Ka statue; EX: Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara;
Ka (in ancient Egypt) the supposed spiritual part of an individual human being or god, which survived (with the soul) after death and could reside in a statue of the person; located in Serdab; EX: Stepped Pyramid of Djoser
engaged (of a column) attached to or partly let into a wall; EX: Stepped Pyramid of Djoser in the Entrance hall and the North Palace (Lower Egypt) Courtyard of the papyrus capitals, the Tuscan Doric and Corithinan style columns of the Flavian Amphitheater,
capitals part of column anatomy topping the shaft and crowned with an Abacus
ashlar masonry made of large square-cut stones, typically used as a facing on walls of brick or stone; EX: entrance hall and North Palace (Lower Egypt) courtyard of Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara,
Nemes headdress of Egyptian kings; EX: Sphins of the Pyramid complex of Khafre
Energetics the properties of something in terms of energy; "Architectural" trying to find a way to calculate the energy that went into a building; interpreted leaps, using vision to think: EX: Temple of Karnak online tour and Passage Grave, Newgrange
composite creature EX: Sphinx, human-headed lion
valley temple EX: Pyramid complex of Khafre at the base of the complex
Mortuary temple EX: Pyramid complex of Khafre at the base of pyramid, Mortuary Temple Complex of Hatshepsut, Deir el Bahari
Pre-Pottery Neolithic EX: Jericho, Israel, Ain Ghazal (Jordan),
Monumentality great in importance, extent, or size; part of selection criteria for the World Heritage; characteristic of Egyptian architecture
Tell mound that is like a layer cake created over time; EX: Jericho is an Neolithic one of these with cities becoming mounds because they are built on older cities;
PPN Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Sper Wall Had this at Catalhuyuk, creates a division of spaces
Hieratic Scale more important people are often shown larger
Ethnographic parallel the similarities between cultures that are not connected
Gordon Chile writer of the criteria for a "True City"
Gordon Chile's criteria of a "True City" size, craft specialization, economic surplus controlled by a central authority, monumental public architecture, social stratification/development of "ruling class", writing, exact & predictive sciences, figural art, foreign trade, sense of community
buttress a projecting support of stone or brick built against a wall;
Ben-Ben in Egyptian mythology, specifically in the Heliopolitan tradition, was the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, and on which the creator god Atum settled
Interior ramp theory Jean-Pierre's Theory for how the pyramids were built
satellite tombs EX: Pyramid complex of Khafre
relief sculptures EX: columns of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Amun at Karnak, Abu Simbel, Catalhuyuk, in the columns of Gobekli Tepe of animals (large cates, scorpion, vultures), "Stele of the Vutures" from Girsu done in low, Mortuary Temple Complex of Hatshepsut
ziggurat (in ancient Mesopotamia) a rectangular stepped tower, sometimes surmounted by a temple. Ziggurats are first attested in the late 3rd millennium bc and probably inspired the biblical story of the Tower of Babel; platform; EX: White Temple, Ziggurat of Ur
Anthropomorphic figures relating to or characterized by having human characteristic figures; not paying too much attention to realistic bodies (ex: bodies with 2 heads); may have spiritual significants; representation of plaster figures may have relation to plastering the skulls
solar orientation orienting a building so that there is significance with the path of the sun usually for a certain part of the year
pylons an upright structure that is used for support or for navigational guidance, in particular; entrance of Temples at Thebes (Temple of Amun at Karnak) are marked by these; symbolic of eastern mountains, passage of the sun, and source of rebirth; trapezoid
relieving chamber small compartments were built above the ceiling of the burial chamber
Interpretive leaps a buzz word; where we apply what we learn from past findings to complete a model to let us visualize things;
Screen walls and frieze some type of barrier between the columns and may direct you to another part of the building; EX: Temple of Amun at Karnak; a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, esp. on a wall near the ceiling;
Created by: MCReer