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When and where was Fermat born? 1601 in Beaumont de Lomagne near Toulouse
When and where did Fermat die? 1665 in Castres
Fermat's family was in the ----- profession. legal
Fermat's main occupation was a -----. lawyer
Fermat's hobby was -----. math
Fermat refused to -----. publish his work
Fermat refused to publish his work, so it was collected by whom? his son
Fermat married and had ----- children. five
Fermat attended a Franciscan ------. monastery
In 1653, Fermat was mistakenly reported killed by what? a plague that swept through the city
Fermat is considered one of the fathers of ------. Analytic Geometry
What did Fermat lay the foundation for? Calculus
What did Fermat and Pascal invent? The theory of probability
Fermat's father was a wealthy what? leather merchant
Where did Fermat practice law and study math? Toulouse
Fermat's last theorem stated what? X^n+Y^n=Z^n
Whose theories did Fermat base his ideas on calculus on? Newton
What was Fermat famous for? his extension of the Pythagorean theorem
Fermat was from what country? France
What was Fermat the founder of? modern number theory
How many siblings did Fermat have? a brother and two sisters
When was Fermat promoted to the highest level of the criminal court? 1652
Fermat changed his name from ---- to -----. Pierre Fermat, Pierre de Fermat
Where was Fermat's education as a child? at home
What was Fermat's first recorded achievement? The restoration of Apollonius's Plane Loci
Why did Fermat keep some proofs and theorems to himself? Out of sheer joy that he could stump the other "geniuses"
Where did Fermat move in the second half of the 1620's? Bordeaux
Fermat's work was so ingenious that Descarte was jealous and wanted to ----- Fermat's reputation damage
Fermat's interest in ------ helped him prove geometrical theorems. physics
Fermat's last theorem was unsolved for ----- centuries. three
Fermat was given credit for the development of ----- with his work regarding tangents and stationary points. calculus
Fermat found mistakes in ----- description of free fall. Galileo's
Where/when did Descartes die? February 11, 1650 in Stockholm, Sweden
What was Descartes' last important work published during his lifetime? Passions of the Soul
What is Descartes most famous quote? I think therefore I am (cogito ergo sum)
What caused Descartes' death? the queen made him get up and 5 in the morning, causing his death of pneumonia
Where did Descartes attend school as a boy? La Fleche (Jesuit School) at age 8
What were Descartes chief contributions to math? analytic geometry and the theory of vortices
What was the name of the family estate Descartes lived on? Les Cartes
In 1617, Descartes joined -----. the army
Where/when was Rene Descartes born? March31, 1596 in La Haye, Touraine, France
Who were Descartes parents? Joachim Descartes, Jeanne Brochard
Does Descartes have any descendants? No, his illegitimate daughter died at a young age
Which of his works was Descartes afraid to publish and why? "La Monde" (The World), he was afraid of punishment
Descartes first work ----- dealt with the science of -----? The Discourse, philosophy
Which of Descartes works inculdes 6 meditations and is designed for philosophers and theologians? Meditations
What is Descartes called the father of? Modern philosophy
Descartes was tutoring which important person at the time of his death? Queen Christine of Sweden
What religion was Descartes? Roman Catholic
In what city are Descartes remains? Paris, France
Descarte contributed to so many scientific fields that his nickname became -----. Jack of all Trades
Descartes claimed the world was made of two basic substances, ----- and -----. matter, spirit
What are the Cartesian coordinates Decartes discovered? X, Y, Z
Descartes had ----- health as a child. poor
Did Descartes marry? No
Descartes believed ----- and the mind resembled each other b/c both think but have no physical being. God
Did Descarte have any disabilities? B/c of his unhealthiness, he could only wake up at a time when he felt ready or he would become sick
Where did Descartes attend college? Obtained a law degree at University of Poitiers
What did Descartes do for a living? became a gentle man officer in the army of Prince Maurice of Nassau
What did Descartes do after he was finished with the army? retired from the army in Holland to perform scientific/mathematical research and philosophical reflection.
What discoveries did Descartes make in math? Founder of analytic geometry
did Descartes discover anythin outside of math? researched optics in the case of reflection and refraction of light
What was Descartes family life? wealthy, well-to-do family
What was Euclid also known as? the father of geometry
When was Euclid born? c. 325 B.C.
What country was Euclid born in? Greece
Where did Euclid teach and live? Alexandria, Egypt
What three geometrical definitions did Euclid create? oblong, rhombus, rhomboid
What was Euclid's most famous work, and how many books are in it? The Elements, 13
When was the first printed copy of The Elements published? 1482
What does Euclid's first postulate state? a line can be drawn from any two points
What does Euclid's fourth postulate state? All right angles are equal
What is Euclid's famous fifth postulate known as? the parallel postulate
Which of Euclid's books is an introduction to mathematical astronomy? Phaenomena
Which of Euclid's books was one of the first works on perspective? Optics
In what year did Euclid die? c. 265 B.C.
What is Elements? a 13 volume work of Greek math and geometry
Why was Elements so special? it is often considered the greatest mathematical book of all time
Where was Euclid educated? Plato's academy in Athens, Greece
What was Euclid's profession? teacher and mathematician
What made Euclid so influential? he was one of the first to attempt to standardize mathematics
How many postulates did Euclid have? 5
How did the community react to Euclid's findings? They accepted his ideas
Who were the first people to write about Euclid after his death? Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria
Which king encouraged Euclid to teach in Alexandria? Ptolemy I
Who did historians often confuse Euclid the Mathematician with? the philosopher Euclid of Megara
What was the method of math that Euclid inspired? Axiomatic method of modern mathmatics
About how many copies of Euclid's The Elements have been published wince 1482? more than 1,000
What was Euclid's personality like? kind, patient, fair, but sarcastic
How was Euclid viewed by his peers? godlike, overly thorough
What happened with King Ptolemy? when the king asked if there was an easier way to learn geometry, Euclid sent him home
What did Euclid do to one of his students? When his student asked what he would gain out of learning geometry, Euclid said, "Give him a nickel, since he must make gain by what he learns"
What was Gauss's birthday? April 30, 1777
Where was Gauss born? Brunswick, Germany
How many siblings did Gauss have? 0
What university did Gauss attend? University of Gottingen
What was the name of the asteroid whose orbit Gauss claculated? Ceres - the first asteroid discovered
When did Gauss die? February 23, 1855
What did Gauss realize at age 10? How to mentally add the numbers 1-100
What did Gauss discover about all regular polygons? They can be constructed with just a ruler and a compass
What did Gauss receive from the Duke of Brunswick at the age of 14? A stipend which allowed him to devote his time to his studies
Gauss was the first to prove the ----- Fundamental theorem of algebra
What was the name of Gauss (blank)
What was the name of Gauss's book on the theory of numbers? Disquisitiones Arithmeticae
What was the name of the new algebra Gauss introduced? Algebra of Congruence
Gauss came of with a standard symbol of -----? Congruence
Name what Gauss established that states when any group, called a population, having one or more common characteristics, is measured and graphed it would most often form a particular pattern? Gaussian Curve, Normal Curve
Gauss was a professor of what at Gottingen observatory? astronomy
What is Gauss the founder of? differential geometry
How many children did Gauss have? 6
What does Gauss have inscribed on his tombstone? a regular 17-gon
From 1989 until the end of 2001, where was Gauss's portrait and a normal distribution curve shown? the German Ten-mark banknote
While performing a math problem, Gauss was informed his wife was dying. What was his response? "Tell her to wait a moment 'til I'm through"
What polygon did Gauss construct using only a ruler and a compass and what was its significance? heptadecagon, it was the most major advance since the Greeks
To what did Gauss bring acceptance by graphing complex numbers? imaginary numbers
What theorem did Gauss prove which states that natural numbers can only be shown as the product of prime numbers one way? fundamental theorem of arithmetic
What does a gauss measure? strength of a magnetic field
Gauss completed a geodesic survey of what region of Germany? the state of Hanover
What did Gauss invent as a result of the geodesic survey? heliotrope
Gauss used what equation to specify the location of the magnetic South Pole? Laplace Equation
At what age did Gauss impress his teachers by adding the integers from 1 to 100 by recognizing that the sum was fifty pairs of numbers each pairing to sum 101? 7
Of what did Gauss and Wilhelm Webster construct the first successful form? telegraph
Why wasn't Gauss able to have the heptadecagon on his tombstone? The engraver thought it would look too much like a circle
What was Gauss's personal motto? Pauca sed matura - few but ripe
What did the Minister of Geheimat Feonce von Rotenkreuz present Gauss with as a present? a table of logarithms
What medal was Gauss given? a medal to be the prince of mathematicians
What did Gauss do to signal the green men from Mars? Came up with the idea to draw huge drawings in the Siberian desert
In what city was Euler born? Basel, Swirtzerland
When was Euler born? April 15, 1707
What did Euler's father do? Lutheran minister
Under which well-known mathematician did Euler study? Johann Bernoulli
What job did Euler's father want him to have? Lutheran minister, but Euler did not enjoy it
Which university did Euler attend at the age of 13? University of Basel
What religion was Euler? Lutheran - all his life
Who forced Euler to move to Berlin? Frederick the Great
How many times did Euler marry? twice
What did Euler have a master's degree in? philosophy
Did Euler write any books? Mechanica, Commentarii, etc.
Where did Euler die? St. Petersburg, Russia
How did Euler die? apoplexy (stroke)
Euler discovered the formula e^pi*i=0. What is it known as? Euler's identity
What famous topological problem did Euler solve? Bridge of Konigsberg
Name 3 mathematical notations Euler gave us. f(x), e, i, (delta)y, (pi), (sigma)
Which mathematician's work did Euler make improvements on? Fermat's
What was Euler's best-known text? Introductio in Analysin Infinitorum
Euler developed an algorithm to chart the orbit of which celestial body? moon
How many children did Euler have? 13
With what physical impairment did Euler live for 17 years? blindness
What year did Euler die? 1783
Which two delestial objects are named for Euler? asteroid, lunar crater
How many of Euler's children survived their infancy? 5
What did Candorcet say at Euler's death? "He ceased to calculate and to live"
Which book could Euler recite word-for-word? The Aeneid
Where did Euler attended college? University of Basel and the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia
How did Euler become totally blind? After a cataract operation he was restored to full sight, but he didn't take proper care of himslef and became totally blind a few weeks later.
What were some of Euler's formulas? V-E+F=2 (for convex polyhedrons), e^ix=cos(x)+sin(x)
Did Euler serve in the military? He served as a medical lietenant in the Russian Navy. When he was released, he became a professor of physics.
What did Euler study? theology at first, but he didn't enjoy it and dropped the study
What happened to Euler's right eye? he lost sight in it b/c of harsh weather in his homeland
Did Euler win any awards? 2nd prize for best arrangement of masts on a ship
What was Euler's elementary school like? very poor, no math department
What happened to Euler's house? It was burned down in 1771, but he was able to save himself and many of his mathematics manuscipts.
Where did Sophie Germain live? Paris, France
What scholar influence Sophie's decision to become a mathematician? Archimedes
During what period, at what age, did Sophie take up an interest in math? French revolution, 13
What was Sophie's pseudonym? M. LeBlanc
How many sisters did Sophi have? 2
What year was Sopie born? 1776
What languages did Sophie teach herself? Latin, Greek
What social class was Sophie's family a part of? Bourgeoisie
Who was Sophie's mentor and fellow mathematician? Lagrange
Sophie's main works were based on whose theorem? Fermat's
With what German mathematician did Sophie correspond? Gauss
How did Sophie learn math? taught herself
Why wasn't Sophie considered credible in her time? She was a woman
What is Sophie's most important work in number theory? steps toward solving Fermat's last theorem
How old was Sophie when she died? 55
What was the cause of Sophie's death? breast cancer
What was Sophie's profession as listed on her death certificate? property holder
Where is there a street named Rue de Sophie Germain? Paris, France
What did Sophie receive after her death? honorary degree
What year did Sophie die? 1831
What book inspiried Sophie to become a mathematician? "The History of Mathematics" by Montcula
Which German physicist inspired Sophie with his experiments? Chladni
What difficult task did Sophie take on? establishing equations for vibrations
Which two men aided Sophie in her work on vibrations? Lagrange and Fourier
What prize did Sophie win in 1815? French Institute
What three studies did Sophie contribute to? acoustics, elasticity, theory of numbers
Where did Sophie take correspondence courses? Ecole Polytechnique
Where did Sophie spend a great deal of time as a child? her father's library
Where did Sophie live all her life? her home
What was Sophie's husband's name? She never married
How did Sophie's father discourage her learning? He took away her clothes, candles, and any source of heat so she couldn't study.
What historical event began the year Sophie was born? American Revolution
What was Sophie's system of primes? If p and 2p+1 are prime, then p is a Sophie Germain prime
Who was Archimedes father? Phidias
What was Archimedes father's occupation? astronomer
When was Archimedes born? 287 B.C.
Where was Archimedes born? Syracuse, Sicily
When did Archimedes die? 212 B.C.
Where did Archimedes die? Syracuse, Sicily
What did Archimedes invent while he was in Egypt? Archimedes Screw
Which mathematician was recorded to be related to King Hieron of Syracuse? Archimedes
Who invented the compound pulley? Archimedes
What is Archimedes most famous theorem which gives the weight of a body immersed in a liquid? Archimedes principle
Archimedes Principle is contained in what work done by Archimedes? On Floating Bodies
What important number used in finding the area of a circle did Archimedes give an accurate approximation of? pi
What is the name of the work of Archimedes that was discovered in 1906 on a 10th century manuscript? The Method
What value did Archimedes obtain by circumscribing a circle with a regular polygon having 96 sides? pi
Archimedes was killed during the capture of which city by the Romans? Syracuse
Which mathematician sent false proofs when he sent theorems to other mathematicians? Archimedes
What form of math was Archimedes most fascinated with? geometry
Which king persuaded Archimedes to build war machines? The King of Syracuse or King Hieron II
Which mathematician did Plutarch wirte many stories about? Archimedes
Why did Archimedes have a better reputation than other mathematicians of his time? He invented machines used as engines of war
Archimedes is proclaimed as one of the three greatest mathematicians of all time. Who are the other two? Gauss, Newton
What did Archimedes develop 2000 years before Newton "discovered" it? integral calculus
What 3-D object did Archimedes formulate the volume of? sphere
Archimedes is credited with the method of the "Powers of -----" Ten
Who killed Archimedes? Roman solidier who didn't know who he was
Archimedes studied under the tutelage of ____ Euclid
What modern invention is Archimedes credited with discovering? lever
What was one of Archimedes' nicknames? the great geometer
What ancient weaponry was Archimedes known to construct? catapult
Archimedes' approximation of what geometric symbol is between 3 1/2 and 3 10/71? pi
Instead of pen and paper, what did Archimedes use to figure problems with? Ashes on a blank wall and oils on his skin
What did Archimedes do when he discovered the principle of bouyancy? He ran down the streets of Syracuse naked
What did Archimedes shout when he discovered the principal of bouyancy? "Eureka"
Where was Archimedes when he discovered the principle of buoyancy? bathtub
What is Archimedes' most famous quote? "Give me a mountain to stand on, and I will move the earth"
Name 2 inventions of Archimedes. many war machines, compound pulley systems, planetarium, water screw, water organ
Archimedes is the father of what? integral calculus
What were 2 of Archimedes major writings? On plane equilibriums, Quadrature of the parabola, On the sphere and cylinder, On spirals, On conoids and spheroids, On the floating bodies, Measurement of a circle, The Sandreckoner, On the method of mechanical problems
Who mostly wrote facts about Archimedes life? Plutarch
Where did Archimedes study? Alexandria, Egypt and chief center of Greek learning
What did Archimedes discover? every object has a center of gravity, basic laws of hydrostatics
What was Archimedes nickname during his own time? the wise one, the master, the great geometer
What did Archimedes want inscribed on his tomb? a sphere containing a cylinder
What is another name for the Archimedes Principle? the Law of Hydrostatics (bouyancy)
What was the Archimedes Screw? An invention that allowed people to pump water upwards
Archimedes said, "Give me a place to stand and I will move the earth" after discovering what? The Law of levers and pulleys
In what war was Archimedes killed? 2nd Punic War
When was Newton born? Dec 25, 1642 according to the calendar in use at the time
When did Newton die? March 20, 1727
What branch of mathematics did Newton invent? calculus
What laws did Newton formulate describing classical mechanics? the 3 laws of motion
What position did Newton serve at the University of Cambridge? Lucasion Professor of Mathematics
What did Newton's work Optics describe? his theory of light as a blend of different colors
What college did Newton attend? Trinity College, University of Cambridge
Why was Newton reluctant to share his research with other scientists? he feared they would take credit for his studies
Newton represented his university in what political body? Parliament
What club was Newton president of from 1703 til his death? The Royal Society
Newton was made warden and master of which English organization? the mint
Why was Newton knighted? In recognition of his services at the mint and for his scientific discoveries
Which organization did Newton ask to look into who truly created the Theory of Calculus? The Royal Society
Whose laws did Newton prove about the orbits of planets? Kepler's
What did Newton name his dog? Leibniz
What were Newton's interests other than mathematics? alchemy, mysticism, and theology
The French writer Voltaire first recorded what story involving Newton? that an apple fell on his head and led him to the discovery of gravity
Newton invented what wrestling submission move? the Woolsthorpe Cloverleaf, of which the Texas Cloverleaf is derived.
Newton fathered 12 children with how many mothers? 11
Newton described his principle of universal gravitation in which book? Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
True of False: Newton supported King James in making all universities Catholic False
What was Newton's greates an most known work that was published in 1687? Principia
Newtons work about light and spectrum established in 1692. Opticks
Newton studied the works of which famous French mathematician? Descartes
On what holiday was Newton born? Christmas
What event led to Newton's theory of gravity? apple falling from a tree
How many books make up Newton's Principia? 3
What religion did Newton believe in? Christianity
In which year was Newton born? 1643
Did Newton ever marry? no
Newton wanted a degree in what subject? law
Why was Cambridge closed for two years, during which Newton made great advances? the plague
What was Newton's father's name? Isaac Newton
What did Newton's mom want him to be when he grew up? farmer
Where is Newton buried? Westminster Abbey
How many total publications did Newton have? 8
Dispute with which British Mathematician over the rights to new discoveries caused prolonged acceptance of Newton's ideas? Leibniz
Who was born in Lincolnshire, England on Jan 4, 1643? Newton
Who was the inventor of calculus? Newton
Who was knighted by Queen Ann of England? Newton
Who discovered the prism and the spectrum of colors and published his discoveries in a book called Opticks? Newton
Who discovered that objects in movement move in a straight line, and objects at rest tend to stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force? Newton
Who discovered that for every action there is both an equal and opposite reaction? Newton
Who, as a boy, was more interested in making mechanical devices than studying? Newton
This man attended Cambridge University and taught mathematics there. Newton
This man discovered the Binomial Theorem (the sum or difference of two unknowns if raised to a power greater than one, the binomial theorem describest how to represent the result.) Newton
Einstein rejected _____'s explanation of universl gravitation, but not the fact of its operation. Newton
----- discovered how the Earth is held together by gravity, published as Principia at the age of 23 Newton
----- discovered the spectrum of colors Newton
Newton named the 7 colors of the spectrum, even though the last, indigo, is barely distinguishable from the others b/c ----- 7 was his favorite number
Who was involved with the legend of getting hit on the head by an apple while sitting under a tree pondering about the laws of physics? Newton
Within his immediate family, who was Newton's subject of fixation? his mother
Who invented the cat door? Newton
Who found analytic ways to find area, tangents, and lengths of curves? Newton
Who invented the reflecting telescope using mirrors rather than a series of lenses? Newton
Who was inspired by Sir Francis Bacon, Henry Moore, Galileo, and Descartes? Newton
Who invented the sun dial and water clock (powered by the force of dropping water)? Newton
Created by: BHuhmann