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Chapter 2 Medical

Human Body In Health & Disease

Medical Question Vocab CardsAnswer
Aden gland
adip fat
anter before, front
caud lower part of body, tail
cephal head
cyt cell
eti cause
hist tissue
medi middle
path disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
physi nature,physical
poster behind, towards the back
proxim near
thorac chest
umbilic navel
ventr infront, belly side of body
endo within, inside
exo outside, away from
peri surrounding, around
retro behind, back of, backward
ologist specialist
ology the science study of
plasia development, growth formation
stasis control maintencance of a constant level
trophy development, nourishment
Abdominal Cavity a hollow place or space, or a potential space, within the body or one of its organs
adenectomy Surgical excision of a gland
adenocarcinoma carcinoma derived from glandular tissue or in which the tumor cells form recognizable glandular structures.
adenoma a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium.
adenomalacia abnormal softening of a gland.
adenosclerosis hardening of a gland
anaplasia Reversion of cells to an immature or a less differentiated form, as occurs in most malignant tumors
anatomy the science of the structure of living organisms
anomaly marked deviation from normal, especially as a result of congenital or hereditary defects.anom´alous
anterior situated at or directed toward the front; opposite of posterior
aplasia lack of development of an organ or tissue.
bloodborne transmission transmitted when contaminated blood or body fluids enter the body of another person
caudal near the tail or hind parts
cephalic Of or relating to the head.
chromosomes the small, dark-staining, and more or less rod-shaped bodies situated in the nucleus of a cell
comunicable disease a disease the causative agents of which may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly.
congenital disorder Congenital absence or partial absence of the lower jaw.
cytoplasm The protoplasm outside a cell nucleus
distal Anatomically located far from a point of reference, such as an origin or a point of attachment.
dorsal pertaining to the back or to any dorsum.
dysplasia abnormality of development
endemic Prevalent in or restricted to a particular region, community, or group of people.
endocrine glands organs whose secretions (hormones) are released directly into the circulatory system
epidemic Spreading rapidly and extensively by infection and affecting many individuals in an area or population at the same time, as of a disease or illness.
epigastric region the abdominal region that is superior and central in location, above the umbilical region and between the two hypochondriac regions.
etiology The science and study of the causes or origins of disease.
exocrine gland one whose secretion is discharged through a duct opening on an internal or external surface of the body
functional disorder a disorder of physiological function having no known organic basis.
genetic disorder any disease or condition that is genetically determined and involves a single gene mutation, a multifactorial inheritance, or a chromosomal aberration
geriatrician a physician who has specialized postgraduate education and experience in the medical care of older persons.
hemophilia a genetic disorder—usually inherited—of the mechanism of blood clotting
histology that department of anatomy dealing with the minute structure, composition, and function of tissues.histolog´ichistolog´ical
homeostasis a tendency to equilibrium or stability in the normal physiological states of the organism.
hyperplasia abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue
hypertrophy enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to increase in size of its constituent cells
hypogastric region The lowest of the three median regions of the abdomen
hypoplasia incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue
iatrogenic illness Any complication related to diagnosis and treatment of disease
idiopathic disorder any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
infectious disease A disease caused by a microorganism or other agent, such as a bacterium, fungus, or virus, that enters the body of an organism.
inguinal Of, relating to, or located in the groin
medial lating to, situated in, or extending toward the middle; median.
mesentery the peritoneal fold attaching the small intestine to the posterior body wall.
midsagittal plane one passing longitudinally through the middle of the body from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves.
nosocomial infection an infection acquired at least 72 hours after hospitalization, often caused by Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, hepatitis viruses, herpes zoster virus, Pseudomonas, or Staphylococcus
pandemic a widespread epidemic of a disease
pelvic cavity the space within the walls of the pelvis
peritoneum the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavitiesand investing the contained viscera
peritonitis Peritonitis is an inflammation of the membrane which lines the inside of the abdomen and all of the internal organs.
phenylketonuria can be defined as a rare metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the production of the hepatic (liver) enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)
physiology the science which treats of the functions of the living organism and its parts, and of the physical and chemical factors and processes involved.
posterior directed toward or situated at the back
proximal nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or median line or to the point of attachment or origin.
retroperitoneal posterior to the peritoneum
stem cells Parent cells from which other cells are made
thoracic cavity the part of the ventral body cavity between the neck and the diaphragm
transverse plane one passing horizontally through the body, at right angles to the sagittal and frontal planes, and dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
umbilicus The mark on the surface of the abdomen that indicates where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus during gestation
ventral Relating to or situated on or close to the abdomen
vector borne transmission indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person