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one of the primary processes by which the body repairs tissue damage and combats infection inflammation
five cardinal signs of inflammation redness, pain, heat, swelling, loss of function
major events of inflammation increased blood supply, increased vascular permeability, neutrophil infiltration, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, restoration of normal function or fibrous scarring
this inflammatory mediator activates fever and endothelium IL1
this inflammatory mediator is a potent vasodilator and increases mucus histamine
this chemical mediator is a vasodilator and increases permeability prostaglandins
this chemical mediator increases mucus and bronchochonstriction leukotrienes
this chemical mediator activates macrophages and NK cells interferon gamma
this chemical mediator attracts cells to the site chmokine
this chemical medator caues chemotaxis and activates PMN platelet activating factor (PAF)
this chemical mediator increases CAM, fever, and cytokines TNF
this chemical mediator causes cell movement, damage, and repair of tissue enzymatic mediators
these facilitate cell to cell and cell to matrix interactions, including the necessary interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells that allow these cells to infiltrate the tissues during inflammation. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
these consist of proteins and glycoproteins, grouped into families iwth similar strucutres, important in cell trafficking and migration, and crutial to the development of inflammation cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
these CAMs bind carbohydrates: they are found on leukocytes, and activated endothelium selectins. types include L-selectins, P-selectin, E-selectin
these CAMs bind to selectins. they are found on HEV, mucosal lymphoid tissue venules, and endothelium vascular addressins. one ex is CD34
these CAMs bind to ICAMs and extracellular matrix: they are found on lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells integrins. examples are LFA-1, CR3
these CAMs bind integrins: found on T-cells, APC, activated endothelium immunoglobulin superfamily: example is CD2
these recognize common molecular patterns. they are encoded in germ line genes, found on many cell types, and recognition is important to the adaptive immune response pattern recognition receptors (PRR) ex: "toll like receptors" TLL
a process of engulfing particles. primary phagocytic cells are the neutrophils, macrophages, and some dendritic cells. There is intracellular killing via oxygen dependent and independent mechanisms phagocytosis
when a phagocyte engulfs an pathogen, the layer that forms around the pathogen is called this phagosome
during phagocytosis, when the phagosome is surrounded by granules, it forms this structure phagolysosome
this is a substance that enhances phagocytosis and consists of acute phase proteins, complement proteins, and antibodies opsonins
some examples of acute phase proteins (opsonins) are: C reactive protein: CRP, mannose binding lectin: MBL, fibrinogin, serum amyloid proteins: SAA, complement system proteins
what are types of cytokines type I (Interferon alpha and beta) and type II interferons (interferon gamma)
the primary role of this interferon is mostly to produce an anti-viral effect type 1 interferons: alpha and beta
the primary role of this interferon is mostly to activate macrophages type II interferons: interferon gamma
what are circulating inflammatory cells? neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, platelets (never let monkeys eat bananna peels)
what are tissue resident inflammatory cells? mast cells and macrophages
what are some killing mechanisms to eradicate pathogens? acidification, toxic oxygen derived products, toxic nitrogen oxides, antimicrobial peptides, enzymes, competitors
this is a type of inflammatory cell that contains cytoplasmic granules which contain histamine. they synthesize many other inflammatory mediators mast cell
this is a group of blood and cell surface proteins that are important to inflammatory and immune respponses. complement proteins
what are some major biologic roles for complement? to label microbial pathogens for destruction (opsonize), to disrupt the membranes of microbial pathogens leading to their lysis, and recruit inflammatory cells
which complement protein is found in the highest concentration? C3
what are the three pathways of complement in order of which they are activated/ alternative pathway, lectin pathway, classical pathway
all pathways of complement meet here to start the common pathway the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b
what is the membrane attack complex made up of? C5bC6C7C9(C9)n
which complement proteins are naaphylatoxins? C3a, C5a
which complement proteins are considered chemotactic factors? C5a,
which complement protein is considered opsonins? C3b
what are some regulators of complement activation? requirements for activation, generation and inactivation of C3b, complement receptors on cells, C1 inhibitor, decay accelerating factor, CD59
which components inhibit complement? C1INH, DAF, CD59
what are some autoimmune diseases due to immunopathology of complement? glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, intravascular hemolysis
what are some laboratory measures that can be taken of complement? quantitation of complement proteins, measure of complement activity
this is inflammation of prolonged duration (weeks to months) in which inflammation, tissue in jury, and attempts at repair coexist in varying combinations. characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration, tissue destruciton, and attempts at healingbyfibros chronic inflammation
this is a distinctive pattern of chronic inflammation seen in a limited number of infections. it's considered a type 4 hypersensitivity and consists of activated acrophages, derivative cells, Tcells, fibroblasts granulomatous inflammaiton
tissue granuloma is involved in these types of diseases: tuberculosis, leprosy, leishmaniasis
Created by: aferdo01