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Fund of body ch10&11

Nervous system & Senses Chapters 10 & 11

Nerve cells are AKA neurons
The axon is the portion of a neuron that carries impulses from one neuron to the next
The axon is surrounded by a proctective lipoprotein called myelin sheaths
The myelin sheaths allow nerve impulses to travel at 200 miles/second(fast)
Unmyelinated nerve impulses travel at 0.5 meter/second(slow)
A degenerative nerve disease caused by a degradation of the myelin sheaths is called Multiple Sclerosis(MS)
CNS (Central Nervous System) is made up of the brain & spinal cord
The brain contains 100,000,000,000(100 billion) neurons
PNS (Perpheral Nervous System) is made up of all the nerves except the brain & spinal cord
PNS(Perpheral Nervous System) is made of 1.Sensory neurons AKA afferent neurons 2.Motor neurons AKD efferent neurons
Sensory(afferent) neurons transmit changes in the environment to the brain for interpretation
Changes in the environment are called stimuli(plural) (stimulus/singular)
Motor(efferent) neurons transmit commands from the brain to the muscles to facilitate movement
Smooth voluntary muscle movements are greatly influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter dopamine
A disease caused by a deficiency of dopamine is called Parkinson's Disease(PD)
ANS(Autonomic Nervous System) is considered involuntary(reflex)
Involuntary relexes include choughing, choking, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting
The ANS(Autonomic Nervous System) is subdivided into the Sympathetic division AKA "flight or flight reactions"---uses a neurotransmitter(chemical) called NorepinEphrine(NE) to transmit impulses(adrenalin) *The Parasympathetic division--uses a neurotransmitter called ACetylcHoline(Ach) to transmit impulses
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations(rest & digest) and include *Digestive processes *Reproductive processes *Eupnea *Normal Heart Rate(HR)
Changes that occur during the sympathetic(flight or fight) response are *Tachycardia(fast heart rate) *Tachypnea(breathing faster) *Bronchodilation(airways open up) *Pupillary dilation(pupils get bigger) *Pallor-shunting of blood from the periphery to the large muscles of arms,legs,brain, heart, lungs
The largest part of the brain is called the cerebrum
The outer portion of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex(outer)
The cerebrum is divided into right and left halves called hemispheres
The hemispheres are connected & communicate by the corpus callosum
Sections of the brain are called lobes
The frontal lobe controls *Voluntary Muscle function(you can control) *Moods *Aggression *Smell reception(olfactory) *Motivation
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as *Touch *Pain *Balance *Taste *Temperature
The temporal lobes evaluate *Hearing input *Smell *Memory *Judgment
The occipital lobe functions in receiving & interpreting visual input
Depression, migrains, anxiety, appetite, sexuality & bipolar disorder are influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter serotonin
The second largest portion of the brain is called the cerebellum
The cerebellum is located at the posterior base of the brain
The cerebellum functions as a reflex center for coordination & balance
The brain stem consists of the *Medulla oblongata *Pons Varolii *Midbrain
The medulla & pons are responsible for controlling *Consciousness & arousal *Regulation of diameter of blood vessels(BP) *Heart Rate(HR) *Ventilation(breathing)
The midbrain acts as the connection between the cerebrum & the spinal cord
The thalamus is the principal relay station for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex(outer)
The hypothalamus controls *Pituitary gland *feeling of rage & aggression *Body temperature *Thirst *Sleep *Food intake(satiation)
The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata
The length of the spinal cord is approximately 16-18 inches
The function of the spinal cord is to *Convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain *Conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery
Branching off the spinal cord are the 31 paired spinal nerves
Most spinal nerves exit the vertebral column between the adjacent (next to) vertebrae
The spinal nerves consist of 8 cervical pairs 12 thoracic pairs 5 lumbar pairs 5 sacral pairs 1 coccygeal pair
The brain & spinal cord are surrounded by protective membranes called meninges (plural)---(meninx--singular)
The outer-most(1st) meninx(singular) is called the dura mater
The middle(2nd) menix is called the arachnoid membrane (spider layer)
The inner-most(3rd) menix is called the pia mater(delicate mother)
Between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane is the subdural space
The subdural space contains serous fluid(clear)
Between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space
The subarchnoid space contains CSF (CerebroSpinal Fluid)
CerebroSpinal Fluid(CSF) circulates around the brain & spinal cord through cavities called ventricles(chambers)
The CSF (CerbroSpinal Fluid) serves as a shock absorber and circulates nutrients
The white (opaque-light cannot pass through) portion of an eye is called the sclera
The transparent(light can pass through) anterior portion of a scleral is called the cornea
The colored portion of an eye is called the iris
The highly vascular(lots of blood vessels) layer of an eye is called the choroid
The os (opening) in the center of an iris is called a pupil
A pupil that decreases in size is called pupillary constriction
A pupil that increases in size is called pupillary dilation
The crystalline structure located posterior to each pupil that focuses(accommodates) light on a retina is called the crystalline lens
The retina is the portion of an eye that perceives light
Each retina is made up of visual receptor cells called rods & cones
Each retina is an extenion of an optic nerve (opt/o-vision)
The optic nerves transmit visual impulses to the thalamus (relay station)
The thalamus relays these impulses to the occipital lobe for interpretation (eyes in the back of your head)
The anterior compartment of an eye is filled with liquid called the aqueous humor(liquid transparent)
The posterior compartment of an eye is filled with liquid called the vitreous humor(liquid transparent)
The external cartilagenous flap of each ear is called a pinna AKA the auricle
The tube leading from each pinna(auricle) to a tympanic membrane is called the external auditory canal
A tympanic membrane is AKA eardrum
Each external auditory canal is lined with modified sebaceous (oil) glands that produce cerumen AKA earwax
Each middle ear is made up of three Auditory(hearing) ossicles(bones) called the 1. Malleus(hammer) 2. Incus(anvil) 3. Stapes(stirrup) (complete size at birth/never get any bigger)
The tubes that connect the middle ears to the pharynx (throat) for pressure equalization are called the Eustachian tubes
The structure in each inner ear that is responsible for perceiving sound vibrations & conducting these vibrations to the auditory(hearing)(vestibulocochlear) nerve is called the cochlea(plural)
The connection between a stapes and a cochlea is called the oval window
The structure in each inner ear which aids in balance(equilibrium) is called the labyrinth
Each labyrinth is made up of the vestibule & semicircular canals
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed