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Medical Terms ch 15

Diagnostic procedures and pharmacology

assessment the evaluation or appraisal of a condition
vital signs indicates systems are functioning: temperature
98.6 F average normal temperature
hypothermia abnormally low body temperature
hyperthermia an extremely high fever
pulse the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart
respiratory rate also known as respiration
blood pressure the force of blood against the walls of the arteries
sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure
systolic pressure occurs when the ventricles contract
diastolic pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxed
pain can be a 5th vital sign
acute pain pain that comes on quickly
chronic pain pain that can be mild or severe
auscultation means listening for sounds within the body and is usually performed thorugh a stethoscope
rale also known as a crackle
rhonchus also known as wheezing
stridor abnormal hgih-pitched harsh sound heard during inhalation
bruit an abnormal sound heard during auscultaion of an artery
heart murmur an abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves
abdominal sounds also known as bowel sounds
palpation an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture
percussion a diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers
ophthalmoscope an eye instrument used examine the interior of the eye
otoscope an instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane
speculum an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facillitate inspection of its interior
stethoscope an instrument used to listen to the sounds within the body
recumbent position describes any position in which the patient is lying down
prone position patient is lying on the belly face down
horizontal recumbent position also known as supine position
dorsal recumbent position the patient is lying on the back with knees bent
Sims' position patient is lying on left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back
knee-chest position patient is lying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and chest rest on the table
lithotomy position patient is lying on the back with the feet and legs raised and supported by stirrups
stat results are needed immediately
profile tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multichannel laboratory testing equipment
phlebotomist an individual trained and skilled in phlebotomy
phlebotomy also known as venipuncture
capillary puncture technique used when only a small amount of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test
complete blood count series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions
erythrocyte sedimentation rate also known as sed rate
hematocrit describes the percentage
platelet count measures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function
red blood cell count a determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood
total hemoglobin test usually part of the complete blood count
white blood cell count determination of the number of leukocytes in the blood
white blood cell differential test determines what percentage of the total count is composed of each of the five types of leukocyte
basic metabolic panel group of eight specific blood tests that provide important information about the current status of the patient's kidneys
blood urea nitrogen test measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood due to the waste product urea
urea major end product of protein metabolism found in urine and blood
crossmatch tests performed to determine the compatibility of donor and recipient blood before a transfusion
agglutination clumping together of the red blood cells
C-reactive protein test performed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body
lipid panel measures the amount of total cholesterol
prothrombin time also known as pro time
serum bilirubin test measures the ability of the liver to take up
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity
urinalysis the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
routine urinalysis performed to screen for urinary and systemic disorders
microscopic examination peformed when more detailed testing of the specimen in necessary
casts fibrous or protein materials
pH the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
acidosis excessive acid in the body fluids
alkaline urine pH above 7
specific gravity reflects the amount of wastes
low specific gravity dilute urine
high specific gravity concentrated urine
acetone sweet
albuminuria presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is the sign of impaired kidney function
albumin a form of protein found in most body tissues
bacteriuria the presence of bacteria in the urine
calciuria the presence of calcium in the urine
creatinuria an increased concentration of creatine in the urine
creatinine a waste product of muscle metabolism that is normally removed by the kidneys
drug-screening urine test a rapid method of identifying the presence in the body of one or more drugs of abuse
glycosuria presence of glucose in the urine
hematuria presence of blood in the urine
gross hematuria presence of blood can be detected without magnification
microscopic hematuria urine is clear
ketonuria presence of ketones in the urine
ketones formed when the body breaks down fat
proteinuria the presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine
pyuria presence of pus in the urine
urine culture and sensitivity tests laboratory tests that are used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and determine which antibiotic would be the most effective treatment
endoscopy visual examination of the interior of a body cavity
endoscopic surgery a surgical procedure performed through very small incisions with the use of an endoscope and specialized instruments
endoscope a small flexible tube with a light and lens on the end
laparoscopy visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope tha is passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall
centesis a surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid
abdominiocentesis surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
arthrocentesis surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint
cardiocentesis also known as cardiopuncture
pericardiocentesis puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid
tympanocentesis surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane with a needle to remove fluid or pus from an infected middle ear
contrast medium administered by swallowing
radiopaque substance does not allow x-rays to pass through and appears white or light gray on the resulting film
radiolucent substance
radiography (X-ray) uses x-radiation passing through the patient to expose a film or create a digital image that shows the body profile
computed tomography (CT) uses x-radiation with computer assistance to produce multiple cross-sectional views of the body
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce images
intraveneous contrast medium injected into a vein to make the flow of blood through blood vessels and organs visible
barium a radiopaque contrast medium used primarily to visualize the gastrointestinal tract
radiology also known as x-rays
radiologist a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders with x-rays and other forms of radiant energy
radiographic positioning describes the body placement and the part of the body closest to the x-ray film
radiographic projection describes the path that the x-ray beam follows through the body from enterance to exit
anteroposterior projection patient positioned with the back parallel to the film
posteroanterior projection patient positioned facing the film and parallel to it
lateral projection patient positioned at right angles to the film
oblique projection patient positioned so the body is slanted sideways to the film
extraoral radiography film is placed and exposed outside of the mouth
panoramic radiograph also known as panorex
intraoral radiography film is placed within the mouth and exposed by a camera positioned next to the exterior of the cheek
periapical radiographs show the entire tooth and some surrounding tissue
bite-wing radiographs show the crowns of teeth in both archs on one side of the mouth
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to locate problems within blood vessels throughout the body
fluoroscopy visualization of body parts in motion by projecting x-ray images on a luminous fluorescent screen
cineradiography recording of images as they appear in motion on a fluorescent screen
ultrasonography also known as ultrasound
sonogram image created by ultrasonography
sonographer technician trained to take a sonogram
echocardiography an ultrasonic diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the structures and motion of the heart
doppler echocardiogram measures the speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart
fetal ultrasound noninvasive procedure used to image and evaluate fetal development during pregnancy
transesophageal echocardiography also known as TEE
carotid ultrasonography use of sound waves to image the carotid artery to detect an obstruction
nuclear medicine radioactive substances are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes
radiopharmaceuticals radioactive substance used for diagnostic or treatment purposes
nuclear imaging images document the structure and function of organs being examined
nuclear scan also known as a scintigram
bone scan nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown
thyroid scan a radiopharmaceutical containing radioactive iodine is administered
single photon emission computed tomography also known as SPECT
profusion means the flow of blood through and organ
positron emission tomography also known as PET imaging
pharmacology the study of the nature
pharmacist licensed specialist who formulates and dispenses prescribed medications
prescription medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist with an order from a licensed professional such as a physician or dentist
over-the-counter also known as OTC
generic drug usually named for its chemical structure and is not protected by a brand name or trademark
brand-name drug sold under the name given the drug by the manufaturer.
addiction compulsive
adverse drug reaction (ADR) also known as a side-effect
compliance patient's consistency and accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional
contraindication a factor in the patient's condition that makes the use of a medication or specific treatment dangerous or ill advised
drug interaction result of drugs reacting with each other
idiosyncratic reaction an unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual
palliative a substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease
paradoxical reaction the result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results
placebo an inactive substance
potentiation drug interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug is increased by another drug
antipyretic medication administered to prevent or reduce fever
anti-inflammatory relieves inflammation and pain without affecting consciousness
analgesic refers to the class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness
acetaminophen analgesic that reduces pain and fever
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also known as NSAIDs
ibuprofen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine that acts as an analgesic to relieve pain
anticonvulsants administered to prevent seizures
antidepressants administered to prevent or relieve depression
pain-relieving creams applied topically to relieve pain
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation TENS
inhalation administration vapors and gases taken in through the nose or mouth and absorbed in the bloodstream through the lungs
oral administration medications taken by mouth to be absorbed through the walls of the stomach or small intestine
rectal administration insertion of medication in the rectum either in the form of a suppository or a liquid
sublingual administration placement of medication under the tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly
topical application liquid or ointment that is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated
transdermal medication administered from a patch that is applied to unbroken skin
parenteral taken into the body in a manner other than the digestive tract
subcutaneous injection (SC) made into the fatty layer just below the skin
intradermal injection made into the middle layers of the skin
intramuscular injection (IM) made directly into the muscular tissue
intravenous unjection (IV) made directly into a vein
bolus also known as a bolus infusion
peripherally inserted central catheter PICC line
Created by: HillbillyHol26