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Thatcher Cytoskeleton Directed Study/Lecture

Microfilaments Actin & Myosin
Actin Structural microfilaments, composed of F actin, polarized
F Actin G actins polymerized into a double helix due to ATP hydrolysis
G Actin Monomeric actin subunits
Spectrin Actin crosslinking protein that forms networks in erythrocytes
Dystrophin Actin crosslinking protein that forms networks in striated muscle
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Sex linked mutation of the dystrophin gene
Myosin A structural microfilament as well as a motor protein for actin
Actomyosin Actin and myosin associated with each other
Stress Fibers Bundles of actomyosin anchored to the basal surface of fibroblasts, which are attached to the substratum. Produce tension across cell layer.
Microtubules polymers of alpha & beta tubulin
Microtubular Associated Proteins (MAPs) Microtubular crosslinking proteins that form networks
What is an important MAPs and what is it connected to? Tau; alzheimers
Intermediate Filaments Structural components of the cytoskeleton. Complexes composed of proteins that have similar alpha helical cores but distinctive terminal domains.
Keratin A major intermediate filament of epithelial cells. (what hair and nail are mostly made of)
Nuclear Lamins Intermediate filaments supporting the nuclear membrane
Collagens Stracellular matrix fivers that resist stretching; composed of 3 helices coiled around each other in triple helix
Elastin Gtretchable extracellular matrix fibers that provide tissues with pliability
Fibrillin Glycoprotein microfibrils that provide a scaffold for assembly of elastic fibers
Glycosaminoglycans Polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix composed of disaccharide repeats of modified sugars
Hyaluronans A particularly large glycosaminoglycan that exists free in the extracellular membrane
Proteoglycans Extracellular matrix components composed of core proteins attached to one or more glycosaminoglycans
Heparin A regulatory proteoglycan that activates a clotting inhibitor called antithrombin III
Laminin Extracellular matrix crosslinking protein forming networks in the basal lamina
Fibronectin Extracellular matrix crosslinking protein with multiple binding domains for different factors
Zonula Occludens (tight junctions) Thin bands of membrane around the apical perimeters of epithelial cells held closely together by proteins such as occludin and claudin. Seal cells to prevent diffusion of molecules across epithelium.
Gap Junctions Transmembrane complexes that allow diffusion of small molecules between cells to vesicles
Zonula Adherens Rows of structures anchoring actin microfilaments to the apical surface of epithelial cells, just beneath tight junctions
Circumferential Belt Microfilament bundles (actin & myosin)that encircle the apical perimeter of epithelial cells at the level of the belt desmosomes
Spot Desmosomes Isolated "spot welds" joining the intermediate filament cytoskeletons of two cells at lateral surfaces
Hemidesmosomes Structures that anchor the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of an epithelial cell to the basal lamina
Focal Adhesions Structures that anchor microfilament stress fibers to the basal surface of many cells, particularly epithelial cells
Membrane-microfilament Binding Proteins Membrane associated proteins that anchor the microfilament cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane by binding actin crosslinking proteins
What are the 3 major classes of cytoskeletons? Microfilaments, Microtubules, & Intermediate Filaments
5 Examples of Microfilament Mediated Motility Intracellular membrane trafficking, muscle, contractile ring of cytokinesis, amoeboid motion, and stress fibers
Microvilli Finger like projections of plasma membrane, supported by internal actin bundles, increase plasma membrane surface area for absorption, extremely abundant on brush border of intestinal epithelium
Are actins polarized? Yes positive & negative ends
Myosin Assembly Tetramers made of myosin heavy and light chains. .
Myosin Heavy Chains Made of alpha helical tails and globular heads. Two tails coil around each other to form dimers, this requires ATP hydrolysis. Heads provide motor force.
Myosin Light Chains Serve as regulatory factors controlling contraction of the globular heads
Microtubule Assembly Alpha & Beta tubulins bind to form dimers; bind end to end to form hollow microtubules (polarized). 13 rows per microtubule; alphas face the (-) end and betas face the (+) end. Elongate faster on (+) end. Requires GTP from bera tubulin.
4 Examples of Microtubular Mediated Motility Intracellular membrane trafficking, mitotic spindle, axonal transport, & flagella/cilia
9+2 Arrangement Flagella and cilia consist of 9 microtubule doublets with a central microtubule doublet. Dynein arms between doublets create motor force with ATP hydrolysis.
Why are intermediate filaments not polarized? Because they are antiparallel.
What is the function of the extracellular matrix? Provide shape & resiliency to tissues & organs; and a medium for cells to interact with extracellular environment.
what are the 4 major compounds of the extracellular matrix? Collagen, Elastin, Hyaluronan, & Proteoglycans.
Is collagen right or left handed? Left handed due to prolines.
What enzyme drives crosslinking? Lysyl Oxidase
Striation Results from the pattern of overlap between tropocollagens.
What are collagens produced by? Fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts.
4 Collagen Clinical Defects Fibrosis, Scurvy, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, & Osteogenesis Imperfecta
What is important in wound healing regarding focal adhesions? Stress fiber (actomyosin)
Created by: htolley