The Supreme Court broadly interpreted the clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
Marbury v. Madison
The case in which Marshall first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the Constitution. The decision established the court's power of judicial review.
Brown v. Board of Education
Seperate but equal is inherently unequal.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Established the supremacy of the national government over state governments.
US v. Lopez
Commerce clause does not give congress the power to pass the Gun Free Schools Act
Roe v. Wade
The right to privacy gives a woman the right to an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Schenck v. US
Free speech can be restraint when there is "clear and present danger", such as during a war.
Gitlow v. New York
Overturned Barron v. Baltimore and incorporated the right to free speech to the states.
Tinker v. Des Moines School District
Symbolic speech of students is protected by the First Amendment.
Griswold v. Connecticut
Right to privacy.
Miranda v. Arizona
Rights of the accused.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Incorporated the right to an attorney
Mapp v. Ohio
Incorporated the Fourth Amendment (searches and seizures)
New York Times v. Sullivan
Set guidelines for winning libel suits.
Near v. Minnesota
Freedom of Press
Buckley v. Valeo
"Reasonable restrictions" on campaign contributions are allowed, but limits on campaign expenditures are not. Justified by freedom of speech.
Texas v. Johnson
Flag burning is a form of symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
Miller v. California
Engel v. Vitale
New York cannot mandate a state-composed non-denominational prayer be read in schools beecause it violated the Establishment Clause.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Struck down a law reimbursing religious schools for textbooks and teacher salaries. Government suppored programs in religious schools must have a primary secular purpose, neither aid nor inhibit religion, and not excessively entangle government, religion.
Cantwell v. Connecticut
Incorporated the Free Exercise Clause, recognized absolute freedom of belief.