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Hy - Complete Neuro

Hy - Complete Neuro - One-Liners

QuestionAnswer
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the spinal cord? CN XI
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the medulla oblongata? CN IX, X, XII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the pontomedullary junction? CN VII, VIII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the pons? CN V, VII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the midbrain? CN III, IV
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the diencephalon? CN II
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the telencephalon? CN I
Signs of Foster Kennedy syndrome? (olfactory groove meningioma), IL anosmia, IL optic atrophy, CL papilledema
Cranial nerve sensory ganglia? trigeminal, geniculate, superior and inferior ganglia (CN IX, X)
Cranial nerve motor ganglia? ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, otic, intramural (CN X)
Nerves traversing the jugular foramen? CN IX, X, XI
Nerves traversing the supraorbital fissure? CN III, IV, VI, V2
Nerves traversing the cavernous sinus? CN III, IV, VI, V1 and V2
Nerves traversing the foramen rotundum? CN V2
Nerves traversing the foramen ovale? CN V3
Nerves traversing the foramen magnum? CN XI
Nerves traversing the internal auditory meatus? CN VII, VIII
Nerves traversing the stylomastoid foramen? CN VII
Nuclei for CN III? oculomotor, Edinger-Westphal
Nuclei for CN IV? trochlear
What CN decussates before exiting the brainstem? CN IV
Nuclei for CN V? chief sensory nucleus, mesencephalic, spinal trigeminal, trigeminal motor nucleus
Nuclei for CN VI? abducens
Nuclei for CN VII? facial, superior salivatory, spinal trigeminal, solitary
Nuclei for CN IX? nucleus ambiguous, inferior salivatory, spinal trigeminal, solitary
Nuclei for CN X? nucleus ambiguous, dorsal vagal, spinal trigeminal, solitary
Nuclei for CN XI? accessory nucleus (cervical spinal cord)
Nuclei for CN XII? hypoglossal
Muscles innervated by CN III? superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, inferior rectus, ciliary muscle, constrictor pupillae
Three components of the near triad? convergance of eyes, pupillary constriction, contraction of ciliary muscle
Muscles innervated by CN IV? superior oblique
Muscles innervated by CN VI? lateral rectus
Nerve most likely injured with aneurysm of ICA in cavernous sinus? CN VI
Signs of diabetic infarct in CN III? oculomotor palsy with normal pupil
Signs of compressive injury to CN III? dilated pupil with normal eye movements
Sign of injury to CN IV? head tilt to opposite side
Site of horizontal gaze center? pons
Site of vertical gaze center? midbrain
Signs of Argyll-Robertson pupil? pupil accomadates but doesn’t react [to light]; tertiary syphillis
Signs of injury to right MLF? [occurs in MS!] on leftward gaze, right eye does not adduct (convergance intact)
Signs of injury to the right abducens nerve? IL CN VI palsy, cannot abduct eye
Sign of injury to right abducens nucleus? on rightward gaze, R eye does not abduct, L eye does not adduct
Eye movement deficits in right medial pontine syndrome? on rightward gaze, R eye does not abduct, L eye does not adduct + on leftward gaze R eye does not adduct
Three causes of ptosis? CN III palsy, Horner syndrome, myasthenia gravis
Muscles innervated by CN V? temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid, ant digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatinin, mylohyoid
Muscles innervated by CN VII? muscles of facial expression, post digastic, stapedius
Muscles innervated by CN IX? stylohyoid
Muscles innervated by CN X? laryngeal, pharyngeal, esophageal
Muscles innervated by CN XI? trapezius, SCM
Muscles innervated by CN XII? genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, instrinsic tongue muscles
Skin innervated by CN V? face [V1 - forehead, upper eyelid + nose; V2 - cheek, lower eyelid, upper lip; V3 - jaw, lower lip]
Skin innervated by CN VII, IX and X? small area around ear
What is Ramsay Hunt syndrome? herpes infection in the geniculate ganglion
Signs of Ramsay Hunt syndrome? IL facial paralysis, hyperacusis, loss of taste, herpes vesicles on external ear, canal
Viscera innervated by CN III? sphincter pupillar, ciliary muscle
Viscera innervated by CN VII? nasal cavity, oral cavity, submandibular, sublingual glands
Viscera innervated by CN IX? parotid gland, mucosa of middle ear
Viscera innervated by CN X? larynx, pharynx, foregut, midgut
CN, ganglia and nucleus for taste at the anterior 2/3s of tongue? CN VII, geniculate, solitary
General sensory innervation to anterior 2/3 of tongue? CN V
Signs of CN VII injury at the internal auditory meatus? IL complete facial paralysis, dry eye, dry mouth, hyperacusis, decreased taste on ant 2/3 of tongue + tinnitus/hearing loss (CN VIII)
Signs of CN VIII injury in facial canal? IL complete facial paralysis; decreased taste on ant 2/3 of tongue
Signs of CN VII injury at the stylomastoid foramen? IL complete facial paralysis
Nerves for corneal reflex? CN V + VII
Nerves for pupillary light reflex? CN II + III
Nerves for jaw jerk? CN V
Nerves for cough reflex? CN X (C3-5, intercostal ns)
Nerves for gag reflex? CN IX + X
CN affected with aneurysm of anterior communicating/ICA? CN II
CNs affected with aneurysm of posterior communicating artery? CN III
CN affected with aneuryms at basilar bifurcation? CN III
CNs affected with aneurysm of PICA? CN IX, X, XI, XII
Neurons in discriminitive touch/proprioception/vibration pathway? posterior root ganglia, nucleus gracilis/cuneatus, VPL thalamus, postecentral gyrus
Where does the posterior column/medial lemniscus pathway decussate? rostral medulla
Injury to posterior columns in spinal cord? IL loss of discriminitive touch, proprioception and vibration
Injury to medial lemniscus? CL loss of discriminitive touch, proprioception and vibration
Neurons in pain/temperature pathway? posterior root ganglia, posterior horn, VPL thalamus, postcentral gyrus
Where does the spinothalamic tract decussate? anterior white commissure, spinal cord, all levels
Deficits in syringomyelia? BL dermatomal loss of pain and temperature [usually upper limbs]
Location of lower motor neurons? cerebral cortex, red nucleus, reticular formation
Location of upper motor neurons? spinal cord, motor cranial nerve nuclei (III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XII)
Upper motor neuron (UMN) signs? hemiparesis, increase muscle stretch reflexes, + Babinski sign, spasticity
Lower motor neuron (UMN) signs? paralysis, decreased muscles stretch reflexes, flaccid tone
Motor tracts in the posterior limb of the internal capsule? corticospinal [upper limb, trunk, lower limb]
Corticospinal tracts decussates at what level? pyramidal decussation, caudal medulla
Motor tracts in the genu of the internal capsule? corticobulbar [cranial nerves]
Signs of injury to the corticospinal tract in the right internal capsule? left, UMN signs
Signs of injury to the corticospinal tract in cervical spinal cord on the right? right, UMN signs
Signs of injury to the corticobulbar tract in the right internal capsule? left, lower facial paralysis; tongue points away from lesion
Location of lesion in decerebrate posturing? midbrain - damage red nucleus or rubrospinal tract
Location of lesion in decorticate posturing? rostral midbrain or thalamus - red nucleus intact
Neurons in auditory pathway? spiral ganglion, cochlear nucleus, superior olive, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate, primary auditory cortex
Result of Rinne test in normal ear? air conduction > bone conduction
Result of Rinne test in conductive hearing loss? air conduction < bone conduction
Result of Rinne test in sensorineuronal hearing loss? air conduction > bone conduction
Result of Weber test in normal hearing? localize to midline
Result of Weber test with sensorineuronal hearing loss in R ear? localize to left
Result of Weber test with conductive hearing loss R ear? localize to right
Deficits with injury to CN VIII? IL deafness
What is presbycusis? age-related hearing loss, high frequencies lost first
Neurons in visual pathway? retinal ganglion cells, lateral geniculate, primary visual cortex
Signs of injury to optic nerve/retina? IL visual loss, can affect both temporal and nasal hemifield
Signs of injury to optic chiasm? bitemporal hemianopsia
Signs of injury to optic tract? contralateral homonymous hemianopsia
Signs of injury to Meyer's loop? upper quadrant homonymous hemianopsia
Visual deficits in PCA stroke affecting calcarine sulcus? contralateral homonymous hemianopsia, with macular sparring
What is Marcus Gunn pupil? optic nerve lesion, when light is shown into bad eye, pupil appears to dilate
What structures comprise the basal ganglia [nuclei]? caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, basal nucleus of Meynert
Brain region affected in Parkinson disease? substantia nigra, pars compacta [dopamine]
Signs of Parkinson disease? bradykinesia, pill-rolling tremor, masked facies, postural instability
Pathological sign of Parkinson disease? Lewy bodies in SN
Brain regions affected in Huntington disease? caudate nucleus
Signs of Huntington disease? choreioform movements, dementia
Brain region injured in right hemiballismus? left subthalamic nucleus
Signs of essential tremor? chronic, progressive tremor in arms, neck, larynx, chin; reduced with alcohol consumption
What is Wilson disease? inbron error of copper metabolism; Kayser-Fleischer rings; wing-beating tremor, rigidity
What are signs of cerebellar injury? ataxia, dysmetria, dysdiadokinesia, nystagmus, dysarthria
Signs of injury to vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe)? truncal ataxia, nystagmus
Signs of injury to lateral hemisphere of cerebellum? limb ataxia, intention tremor, dysarthria
Signs of injury to middle cerebellar peduncle? ipsialateral limb ataxia
Results of caloric testing in normal individual? COWS - cold
Signs of Arnold-Chiari I malformation? extension of cerebellar tonsil below foramen magnum
Signs of Arnold-Chiari II malformation? displaced vermis + myelomeningiocele
Signs of Dandy-Walker? enlarged posterior fossa, small cerebellum, cystic dilation of 4th ventricle, hydrocephalus
Signs of injury to corticospinal tract in spinal cord? UMN signs below lesion
Signs of injury to anterior horn of spinal cord? LMN signs at level
Signs of injury to posterior columns? IL loss of discriminitive touch, proprioception and vibration
Signs of injury to spinothalamic tract? CL loss of pain and temperature
Signs of intramedullary tumor/central cord syndrome? sensory loss, sacral sparring of motor function; maybe bowel/bladder disturbances
Deficits in anterior spinal syndrome? UMN signs below lesion, LMN signs at level, loss of pain and temp below lesion, disc touch, proprioception and vibration intact
Deficits in tabes dorsalis? loss of disc touch, proprioception and vibration below lesion, Romberg sign
Deficits in Brown-Sequard injury? IL loss of discriminitive touch, CL loss of pain/temp, UMN signs below lesion, LMN signs at level
Deficits in Friedreich's ataxia? loss of disc touch, proprioception and vibration below lesion, Romberg sign, ataxia and UMN signs below lesion
Deficits in subacute combined degenration? B12 deficiency; loss of disc toucn, proprioception and vibration below lesion, UMN signs below lesion
Signs of spinal cord transection at C6? LMN signs at C6 (brachioradialis), UMN signs below; complete sensory loss below C6
Signs of spinal cord transection at L4? LMN signs at L4 (quads), UMN signs below; complete sensory loss below L4
Deficits in medial medullary syndrome? CL loss of discriminitive rouch, UMN signs, tongue points to lesion
Artery involved in medial medullary syndrome? alternating branches of anterior spinal artery
Deficits in lateral medullary syndrome? IL loss of pain and temp on face, CL loss of pain and temp on body, dysphagia, hoarseness
Artery involved in lateral medullary syndrome? PICA
Deficits in medial pontine syndrome? CL loss of discriminitive rouch, UMN signs, IL CN VI palsy
Artery involved in medial pontine syndrome? basilar, paramedian branches
Deficits in lateral pontine syndrome? IL loss of pain and temp on face, CL loss of pain and temp on body, CN VII or V palsy
Artery involved in lateral pontine syndrome? basilar, circumferential branches
Deficits in Weber syndrome? IL CN III palsy, CL UMN sign, CL lower facial paralysis
Deficits in Benedikt syndrome? IL CN III palsy, CL ataxia [superior cerebellar peduncle]
Deficits in Claude syndrome? IL CN III palsy, CL UMN sign, CL lower facial paralysis, CL ataxia
Arteries involved in midbrain syndromes? paramedian branches from PCA
Signs of cortical injury? aphasia, agnosia, anosognosia, primitive reflexes: grasp, snout, suck, root, magnetic gate, astereognosia, apraxia, contralateral neglect
Deficits in left inferior division MCA stroke? expressive aphasia, CL UMN signs [face + UL], CL sensory loss [face + UL]
Deficits in left superior division MCA stroke? receptive aphasia, CL homonymous hemianopsia
Deficits in right MCA stroke? CL UMN signs [face + UL], CL sensory loss [face + UL]
Deficits in left PCA stroke? CL homonymous hemianopsia with macular sparring
Deficits in left ACA stroke? CL UMN signs [LL], frontal lobe signs
Deficits in Parinaud syndrome? vertical gaze palsy, obstructuve hydrocephalus
Deficits in anterior choroidal artery stroke? CL UMN signs, CL homonymous hemianopsia
Deficits in lentriculostriate artery hemorrhage? CL UMN signs, CL lower facial paralysis, tongue deviates away from lesion
Strokes that can lead to Horner syndrome? lateral medullary, cervical spinal cord
Blood supply to thalamus? posterior cerebral [thalamogeniculate + thalamoperforating]
Signs of thalamic hemorrhage? CL sensory loss, CL homonymous hemianopsia
Signs of tonsillar herniation? respiratory and cardiovascular arrest
Signs of uncal herniation? CN III palsy, UMN signs, papilledema
Structure injured in contralateral neglect? right parietal lobe
Signs of Gerstman's syndrome? acalulia, left-right confusion, finger agnosia; left parietal lobe
Structure damaged in alexia without agraphia? left splenium of corpus callosum
Where is Broca's area? Function? left inferior frontal gyrus; expressive speech
Where is Wernicke's area? Function? left supramarginal, angular, superior temporal gyri; receptive speech
Cause of Cushing's disease? ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
Signs of LH or FSH secreting adenoma? hypogonadism and infertility
Signs of prolactin-secreting adenoma? amenorrhea in females; hypogonadism in men; galactorrhea, infertility, hair loss, decreased libido, weight gain
Signs of diabetes insipidus? polyuria, polydipsia
Signs of SIADH? concentrated urine with osmolality > 300 mosm/L
SIADH treated with rapid infusion of hypertonic saline will cause? central pontine myelinolysis
Signs of craniopharyngioma? visual deficits, diabetes insipidus, adiposity, developmental delay, headaches, papilledema
Craniopharyngioma derived from? remnant of rathke's pouch
Bladder problems in cortical lesions (paracentral lobule)? uninhibited, spastic bladder
Bladder problems in brainstem/high spinal cord injury? flaccid --> spastic [urge incontinence, hyperactive, empties too frequently]
Bladder problems in sacral spinal cord injury? overflow incontinence
Disturbances of erection/ejaculation with spinal cord injury (above T12)? loss of psychogenic erections, reflex erections intact; only reflex ejaculation
Disturbances of erection/ejaculation with sacral spinal cord injury? loss of reflex erection, psycogenic may be preserved; ejaculation abolished
Signs of Horner syndrome? constricted pupil, ptosis, red face, anhydrosis
Components of the limbic system? parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, hippocampus, amygdala…
Structures in the Papez circuit? hippocampus, mamillary body (via fornix), ant nuc of thalamus, cingulate cortex
Function of hippocampus? consolidation of short term memory
Part of hippocampus most vulnerable to seizure activity? CA4
Part of hippocampus most susceptable to anoxia? CA1
Structure affected in Korsakoff syndrome? mammillary bodies, dorsomedial thalamus
Signs of Korsakoff syndrome? amnesia, confabulation with short term memory intact
Metabolic deficency in Korsakoff syndrome? thiamine
Signs sof Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbances of mentation and consciousness
Signs + injury in akinetic mutism? immobile, mute and unresponsive but awake; bulateral lesion of cingulate gyrus
Signs of Kluvy-Bucy syndrome? placid, visual agnosia, hyperorality
Brain region injured in Kluver-Bucy syndrome? bilateral temporal lobe
Signs of normal pressure hydrocephalus? wet [incontinent], wacky [mental decline] and wobbly [gait difficulties]
Structure damaged in epidural hematoma? middle meningeal artery
Structure damaged in subdural hematome? bridging veins
How do you age subdural hematomas? acute blood is white [hyperdense] on CT; isodense in 1-2 weeks and hypodense after that
Structure damaged in subarachnoid hemorrage? vessels in or around the circle of willis
Contents of cisterna magna? vertebral artery, CN IX, X, XI and XII, choroid plexus
Contents of prepontine cistern? basilar artery, CN VI
Contents of cerebellopontine cistern? CN V, VII, VIII
Contents of interpeduncular cistern? CN III
Contents of the ambient cistern? CN IV
Structure comprising the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle? caudate nucleus
Structure(s) comprising the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle? thalamus, hypothalamus
Structure at floor of 4th ventricle? pons [facial colliculus], medulla [hypoglossal trigone]
Signs of injury to facial colliculus? IL facial paralysis + IL CN VI palsy
Signs of injury to the reticular formation? coma
Components of the diencephalon? thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus (pineal), subthalamus
Deficits in ALS? UMN and LMN signs, sensation intact
Deficits in MS? multiple (motor, sensory, special sensory, cognitive) deficits in time and lesions in space
Deficits in Guillan-Barre? typically follows viral illness or vaccination, ascending paralysis (LE then UE), some sensory, autonomic effects
Structures innervated by posterior rami? deep back muscles and overlying skin
Dermatome for C2? back of the scalp; greater occipital nerve [posterior ramus of C2]
Signs of injury to musculocutaneous nerve in axilla? decreased bicep reflex, weakness in flexion at elbow, supination, sonsory loss along lateral forearm
Signs of injury to median nerve at elbow? severe weakness in forearm flexion, paralysis of thenar muscles, sensory loss over palmar aspect and tips of digits 1 - 3, lateral half of digit 4
Signs of injury to median nerve at carpal tunnel? paralysis of thenar muscles, sensory loss over palmar aspect and tips of digits 1 - 3, lateral half of digit 4
Signs of injury to ulnar nerve at cubital tunnel? weakness in flexion of digits 4 and 5, sensory loss in 5th digit (palmar and dorsal), weakness in ab/adduction of fingers, hypothenar muscles, adductor pollicis , Froments sign, slight ulnar claw
Signs of ulnar nerve injury at Guyon's tunnel? sensory loss in 5th digit (palmar only), weakness in ab/adduction of fingers, hypothenar muscles, adductor pollicis , Froments sign, ulnar claw
Signs of injury to radial nerve with midshaft humeral fracture? wrist drop, weak supination, sensory loss on dorsum of hand, triceps normal
Signs of injury to radial nerve in axilla? paralyzed triceps, decreased triceps reflex, decreased brachioradialis reflex, wrist drop, weak supination, sensory loss on dorsum of hand
Signs of lesion to upper roots of brachial plexus? Erb-Duchenne palsy, decreased biceps + brachioradialis reflexes; arm is medial rotated and extended [cant abduct, laterally rotate of flex at elbow], sensory loss over lateral arm
Signs of lesion to lower roots of brachial plexus? Klumpke palsy, complete claw, sensory loss over 5th digit and medial arm, forearm
Signs of thoracic outlet syndrome? weakness in intrinsic hand muscles, sensory loss over 5th digit and medial arm, forearm
Signs of injury to C5 nerve root? weakness in abduction, lateral rotation and flexion at elbow, decreased bicep reflex, sensory loss over lateral arm
Signs of injury to C6 nerve root? weakness in wrist extension, flexion at elbow, decreased brachioradialis reflex, sensory loss over lateral forearm
Signs of injury to C7 nerve root? weakness in finger extension, elbow extension, wrist flexion, decreased tricep reflex, sensory loss over middle finger
Signs of injury to C8 nerve root? weakness in finger flexion, sensory loss over 4th + 5th digit, medial forearm
Signs of injury to T1 nerve root? weakness in finger ab/adduction, sensory loss over medial forearm/arm
Signs of injury to lateral femoral cutaneous nerve? sensory loss over anterior and lateral thigh; aka meralgia paresthetica
Signs of entrapment/injury to saphenous nerve? sensory loss along anterior and medial leg, medial malleolus and foot
Signs of injury to femoral nerve? paralysis of quadriceps, decreased patellar reflex, sensory loss along anterior and medial thigh, leg, medial malleolus and foot
Signs of piriformis syndrome? decreased achilles reflex, weakness in knee flexors, dorsiflexors, plantar flexors, sensory loss over lateral leg, lateral malleolus, dorsum of foot
Signs of injury to common fibular nerve? foot drop, weakness in dorsiflexion, eversion, sensory loss over lateral leg and dorsum of the foot
Signs of injury to superficial fibular nerve? weakness in eversion, sensory loss over dorsum of foot
Signs of injury to deep fibular nerve? foot drop, weakness in dorsiflexion, eversion, sensory loss in the web between 1st and 2nd toes
Signs of injury to tibial nerve in popliteal fossa? weakness in plantar flexion, toe flexion, weakness in intrinsic foot muscle, sensory loss on plantar surface of foot
Signs of injury to the tibial nerve in tarsal tunnel? weakness in intrinsic foot muscles, sensory loss on plantar surface of foot
Signs of injury to superior gluteal nerve? Trendelenburg sign: pelvis drops to good side during gait, paralysis of gluteus medius, minimus and tensor fascia lata
Signs of injury to inferior gluteal nerve? Paralysis of gluteus maximus, weakness in extension and lateral rotation of thigh
Signs of injury to L2 nerve root? weakness in leg flexion, knee extension, adduction, sensory loss over anterior thigh
Signs of injury to L4 nerve root? weakness in knee extension, decreased patellar reflex, sensory loss over anterior medial leg, medial malleolus
Signs of injury to L5 nerve root? weakness in dorsiflexion, toe extension, abduction of thigh, sensory loss over anterior leg, dorsum of foot, digits 1 and 2
Signs of injury to S1 nerve root? weakness in plantar flexion, eversion, hip extension, decreased achilles reflex, sensory loss over posterior leg, digits 3-5
Signs of injury to S2 nerve root? weakness in toe flexion, decreased anal wink, sensory loss over posterior thigh, perineum
Structure infected in herpes zoster? posterior root ganglion
Reflex for C5? biceps [via musculocutaenous n]
Reflex for C6? brachioradialis [via radial n]
Reflex for C7? triceps [via radial n]
Reflex for L1? cremaster
Reflex for L4? patellar tendon [quadriceps, via femoral n]
Reflex for S1? Achilles/calcaneal tendon [gastroc, via tibial n]
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the eye? T1 - T4
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the heart? T1 - T4
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the lungs? T2 - T7
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the foregut? T5 - T9
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the small intestine? T9 - T10
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the large instestine to splenic flexure? T11 - L1
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the descending colon to rectum? L1 - 2
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the kidney? T10 - L1
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the testes/ovary? T10 - 11
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the pelvic organs? T11 - L2
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the upper limb? T5 - 7
Levels of sympathetic innervation of the lower limb? T10 - L2
Parasympathetic innervation of the eye? CN III, Edinger-Westphal
Signs of adie's pupil? tonically dilated pupil that constricts with low dose pilocarpine
Structure injured in Adie's pupil? ciliary ganglion
Parasympathetic innervation of the lacrimal, submandibular and sublingual glands? CN VII, superior salivatory
Parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland? CN IX, inferior salivatory
Parasympathetic innervation of the thoracic organs? CN X, dorsal vagal
Parasympathetic innervation of midgut? CN X, dorsal vagal
Parasympathetic innervation of the kidney? CN X, dorsal vagal
Parasympathetic innervation of the testes/ovaries? S2 - 4 + dorsal vagal
Parasympathetic innervation of the hindgut? S2 - 4
Parasympathetic innervation of pelvic organs? S2 - 4
Created by: Hy Pham Hy Pham on 2011-04-22



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