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PA Immunology Word Scramble

 
 



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PA Immunology

Vanders Ch 18

QuestionAnswer
Site of production for Neutrophils Bone marrow
Site of production for Basophils Bone marrow
Site of production for Eosinophils Bone marrow
Site of production for Monocytes Bone marrow
Site of production for Lymphocytes Mature in bone marrow (B cells and NK cells)and thymus (T cells); activated in peripheral lympoid organs
Site of production for Plasma cells Peripheral lymphoid organs; differentiate from B cells during immune responses
Site of production for Macrophages Bone marrow; reside in almost all tissue and organs; differentiate from monocytes
Site of production for Dendritic cells Almost all tissues and organs; microglia in the CNS
Site of production for Mast cells Bone marrow; reside in almost all tissues and organs; differentiate from bone marrow cells
Functions of Neutrophils Phagocytosis; Release chemicals involved in inflammation (vasodilators, chemotaxins, etc)
Functions of Basophils Carry out functions in blood similar to those of mast cells in tissues
Functions of Eosinophils Destroy multicellular parasites; Participate in immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Functions of Monocytes Carry out functions in blood similiar to those of macrophages in tissue
Functions of Lymphocytes Serve as recognition cells in specific immune responses and are essential for all aspects of these reponses
Functions of B cells Type of Lymphocyte; Initiate AB-mediated immune responses by binding specific antigens to the B cell's plasma membrane receptors; transformed into plasma cells during activation and secrete AB's; Present antigen to helper T-cells
Functions of Cytotoxic T cells (CD8 Cells) Bind to antigens on plasma membrane or target cells (virus-infected cells, cancer cells, and tissue transplants) and directly destroy the cells
Functions of Helper T cells (CD4 Cells) Secrete cytokines that help to activate B cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and macrophages
Another name for Cytotoxic T cells are... CD8 cells
Another name for Helper T cells are... CD4 cells
Functions of NK cells Bind directly and nonspecifically to virus-infected cells and cancer cells to kill them; Function as killer cells in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
ADCC stands for... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Functions of Plasma cells Secrete antibodies
Functions of Macrophages Phagocytosis; Extracellular killing via secretion of toxic chemical; Process & present antigens to helper T-cells; Secrete cytokines involved in inflammation, activation and differentiation of helper T-cells, and systemic responses to infection or injury
Functions of Dendritic cells Phagocytosis; Extracellular killing via secretion of toxic chemical; Process & present antigens to helper T-cells; Secrete cytokines involved in inflammation, activation and differentiation of helper T-cells, and systemic responses to infection or injury
Functions of Mast cells Release histamine and other chemicals involved in inflammation
Source of IL1 Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages
Source of TNF Tumor Necrosis Factor; Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages
Source of IL6 Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages
Source of IL2 Most immune cells
Source of Interferons Most cell types
Source of Interferon-gamma NK cells and activated helper T cells
Source of Chemokines Damaged cells, including endothelial cells
Source of Colony-stimulating factors Macrophages
Target cells of IL1, TNF, and IL6 Helper T cells; certain brain cells; numerous systemic cells
Target cells of IL2 Helper T cells; cytotoxic T cells; NK cells; B cells
Target cells of Interferons Most cell types
Target cells of Interferon-gamma NK cells and macrophages
Target cells of Chemokines Neutrophils and other leukocytes
Target cells of Colony-stimulating factors Bone marrow
Major functions of IL1, TNF, and IL6 Stimulate IL2 secrettion and IL2 receptor expression; induce fever; stimulate systemic responses to inflammation, infection, and injury
Major functions of IL2 Stimulate proliferation; Promote conversion to plasma cells
Major functions of Interferons Stimulate cells to produce antiviral proteins (nonspecific response)
Major functions of Interferon-gamma Stimulate proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic compounds
Major functions of Chemokines Facilitate accumulation of leukocytes at sites of injury and inflammation
Major functions of Colony-stimulating factors Stimulate proliferation of neutrophils and monocytes
Source of Complement Generated from enzymatic action on plasma proteins
Source of Histamine Secreted by mast cells and injured cells
Source of Eicosanoids Secreted by many cell types
Source of Cytokines, including chemokines Secreted by injured cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and several nonimmune cell types, including endothelial cells and fibroblasts
Exaggerated specific responses to non-pathogenic environmental antigens are... allergies
Any exaggerated specific responses that are tissue damaging hypersensitivities
Specific, exaggerated and destructive responses to self antigens auto-immunities
Variable responses to self, neoantigens cancers
Strong barriers to organ and tissue transplantation allogeneic responses
How are acute inflammation chemical mediators produced? Chemical mediators are produced (a) by phagocytic macrophage resident in the inflamed site, (b) by damaged cells in the tissue and (c) through activation of serum complement proteins
Chemical mediators of acute inflammation include.. histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, kinins, chemokines, cytokines, and anaphylatoxins
Mediators of Early Acute inflammation will attract WBC to the inflamed site and activation; effects rapid and affect the epithelial cells of neighboring blood vessels, leading to inc. blood flow, inc. fluid permeability and adhesiveness for circulating WBCs; accumulation of neutrophils
the body’s defense mechanism in response to tissue damage and/or infection is Inflammation
The purpose of inflammation is to... identify the area affected and call into play mechanisms that lead to elimination of the inflammatory stimulus and healing
What are the most common initiators of inflammation? Infection, trauma (physical or chemical), and pathologic immune responses
Innate, non-specific defenses include Physical and/or chemical barriers (epithelia); Molecular--complement, cytokines, chemokines, acute phase proteins (collectins);Cellular-phagocytic cells, natural killer (NK) cells
Acquired, adaptive, specific defenses include Molecular- antibodies;Cellular- lymphocytes: naive, effector, and memory lymphocytes
The Responses by Both Defense Systems (Innate and Acquired) to Infection Consist of Two Phases: Recognition of a potential pathogen and/or its products by host cells and molecules; Recruitment and/or generation of destructive effector mechanisms to contain or eliminate the potential pathogen and/or its products
Which two cells play a role in activating the adaptive immune system and act as antigen presenting cells for T lymphocytes macrophage and dendritic cells
What is the origin of cells involved in defense? Hematopoietic stem cell
50-70 percent of all blood leukocytes are... Neutrophils (the classic phagocytic cell), constantly replenished from bone marrow
The precursors to all tissue macrophage; 1-6 percent of all blood leukocytes Monocytes
the tissue-specific, fully differentiated, highly phagocytic descendents of blood monocytes Macrophages
When partly activated, these cells can also be antigen-processing and presenting cells Macrophages
Antigen processing and presenting cells; <<1 percent of all blood leukocytes Dendritic cells
What 2 cells are sentinel cells detecting danger signals and initiating inflammation and may also serve as antigen processing and presenting cells and activate T lymphocytes? Dendritic cells and macrophage cells
Which type of cells detect virally infected host cells and may lead to cytolysis of the infected cells thus limiting the focus of infection? NK cells
Describe PRR's Pattern Recognition Receptors; Direct uptake of pathogens by phagocytes and dendritic cells; (macrophage mannose receptorsor scavenger receptors); Triggering signaling pathways (ex. TLR) to produce anti-microbial peptides and inflammatory cytokines
TLR stands for... Toll-like receptors; once activated, it is a signaling pathway that produces anti-microbial peptides and inflammatory cytokines
Explain the difference between inflammatory cytokines and chemokines Inflammatory cytokines--molecules that affect the biological activity of other cells having specific receptors for these cytokines;Chemokines--molecules that attract other cell types along a chemical gradient
How many families of chemokines are there? 2 families: One family attracts monocytes, effector T lymphocytes and memory T lymphocytes; The other family attracts neutrophils and naïve T cells
Function of IL-1 Activates vascular endothelium and induces acute phase protein production and lymphocyte differentiation; local effect
Function of IL-6 Induces acute phase protein production and lymphocyte differentiation; systemic effect
Function of IL-8 Chemokine attracting leukocytes to the inflamed site, activates neutrophils; local effect
Function of IL-12 Activates NK cells and induces CD4+ TH1 lymphocytes; local effects
Function of TNF alpha Activates vascular endothelium, increase vascular permeability and induces acute phase protein production; local effect
Autocrine vs paracrine in relation to cytokines Autocrine: having an effect on the cell that produces the cytokine. The cell has receptors for the cytokine it produces; Paracrine: having an effect on cells in the near vicinity that have receptors for the cytokine
Systemic Effects of the Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa on the liver Systemic effects: Stimulate the production of acute phase proteins CRP and mannose binding protein (MBP);Consequences: Complement activation, opsonization, phagocytosis
Systemic Effects of the Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa on bone marrow Systemic effects: Stimulate the production of leukocytes; Consequences: Increased numbers of phagocytes, in particular, neutrophils
Systemic Effects of the Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa on the hypothalamus Systemic effects: Induce fever indirectly by stimulating the hypothalamus; Consequences: Elevated temperatures inhibit viral and bacterial growth and increase antigen presentation
Systemic Effects of the Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa on fat and muscles Systemic effects: Increase metabolism, contributing to the increase in body temperature; Consequences: Elevated temperatures inhibit viral and bacterial growth and increase antigen presentation
Sepsis results in... generalized production of very large amounts of TNFa by macrophage in the spleen and liver and the secretion of high concentrations into blood with resulting vascular collapse and shock
Localized production of TNFa by tissue macrophage leads to... inflammation and mobilization of cells to the site of infection
What are Acute phase proteins? Give examples of them Acute phase proteins are synthesized by the liver in response to macrophage cytokines. Ex. CRP and mannose-binding protein
What is CRP? An acute phase protein; C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is specific for microbial phosphorylcholine, is an opsonin, and can also activate serum complement
What is MBP? Acute phase protein; Mannose binding protein (MBP) recognizes mannose uniquely expressed by microbes;MBP is an opsonin, leading to enhanced phagocytosis;MBP also activates serum complement
What are three interdependent pathways for initiating the activation of complement? The lectin pathway initiated by MBP; The alternative pathway promoted/protected by microbial surfaces;The classical pathway initiated by antibody
What is the central and most important serum complement component of all pathways C3
Activation of the Alternative Pathway without Antibody Naturally occurring proteases can cleave small amount of C3 in solution.This activated C3 can bind a 2nd component B, activated by an enzyme D to form a very labile C3 convertase that can cleave more C3b
Created by: amb101 on 2009-10-07



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