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Lymphatic Sys Ch 19 Word Scramble

 
 



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Lymphatic Sys Ch 19

A&P - Wk 6

QuestionAnswer
What is interstitial fluid called once it enters the lymphatics? lymph
Why are lymphatic capillaries absent from bones, teeth, bone marrow and the entire central nervous system? these areas' excess tissue fluid drains into the cerebrospinal fluid
What is the 'fatty' lymph that drains from the digestive viscera and delivered to the blood via the lymphatic stream called? chyle
What are the major lymphatic trunks? lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian and jugular trunks and intestinal trunk
What collects lymph from the 2 large lumbar trunks that drain the lower limbs and from intestinal trunk that drains the digestive organs? cisterna chyli
What happens when lymphatic vessels are severely inflamed causing the related vessels of the vasa vasorum to become congested with blood? lymphangitis - the pathway of the associated superficial lymphatics becomes visible thru the skin as red lines tender to the touch
How does the lymphatic system transport lymph through the body? by pulsations of nearby arteries, thythmic contractions of thoracic ducts and movement of adjacent tissues
What is blockage of the lymphatics by tumors or removal of lymphatics during cancer surgery which prevents the normal return of lymphatics to the blood called? lymphedema
What are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system? 1) return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream; 2) return leaked proteins to the blood; 3) carry absorbed fat from the intestine to the blood (thru lacteals)
Which cells produce plasma cells, that secrete antibodies into the blood an recognize antigens? B cells
What is lymphoid tissue mainly composed of except the thymus? reticular connective tissue
What lives on the fibers of the reticular network? macrophages
What lives in the spaces of the network in huge numbers? lymphocytes that have squeezed thru the walls of postcapillary venules coursing thru the tissue
What do lymphocytes mature into that protect the body against antigens? T cells or B cells
Which cells manage the immune response by directly attacking and destroying infected cells? activated T cells
Which cells protect the body by producing plasma cells that secrete antibodies into the blood (or other bodily fluids)? B cells
Where do lymphocytes arise from? red bone marrow
What plays a crucial role in body protection and in the immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances and by helping to activate T cells? lymphoid macrophages, and dendritic cells
What cells fibroblast-like cells produce the reticular fiber stroma? reticular cells
Where do the lymphocytes cycle between in the body? circulatory vessels, lymphoid tissues, and loose connective tissues
What tissue consists of a few scattered reticular tissue elements and is found in virtually every body organ? diffuse lymphatic tissue
What cells predominate in germinal centers (the lighter staining center of a lymphoid follicle? follicular dendritic cells and B cells
When do germinal centers enlarge dramatically? When B cells are dividing rapidly and producing plasma cells
What cells predominate in germinal centers? follicular dendritic cells and B cells
What are isolated aggregations of lymphoid follicles that occur in the intestinal wall and apprendix called? Peyer's patches
What are the principal lymphoid organs in the body and where are they found? lymph nodes, which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body
As lymph is transported back to the bloodstream the lymph nodes do what to it? filter it
Where do large clusters of lymph nodes occur near the body surface? inguinal, axillary and cervical regions
What are the primary functions of lymph nodes? filtration of lymph; initiation of an immune response when necessary; production of new lymphocytes
Each lymph node is surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule from which connective tissue strands called what extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments? trabeculae
What 2 histologically distinct regions comprise a lymph node? cortex and the medulla
What does the superficial part of the cortex contain? densely packed follicles, many with germinal centers heavy with dividing B cells
What cells nearly encapsulate the follicles and abut the deeper part of the cortex, which primarily houses T cells in transit? dendritic cells
What role do the T cells perform by circulating continuously between the blood, lymph nodes and lymph? surveillance role
What are thin inward extension from the cortical lymphoid tissue, and contain both types of lymphocytes plus plasma cells and define the medulla? medullary cords
How does lymph enter the convex side of a lymph node? Thru a number of afferent lymphatic vessels
How does the lymph exit the node at its hilum (the indented region on the concave side? via efferent lymphatic vessels
What are infected lymph nodes called? buboes
Buboes are the most obvious symptom of what? bubonic plague
What do the spleen, thymus, tonsils, bits of lymphatic tissue scattered in the connective tissues and Peyer's patches of the intestine have in common? they are all types of lymphoid organs or aggregates of lymphatic tissue in the body
What is the only lymphatic organ not comprised of reticular connective tissue? thymus
What is an important function of the spleen? blood-cleansing; extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets and removes debris
What 3 additional functions does the spleen perform? 1)stores some of the breakdown products of RBC for later reuse 2) is a site of erythrocyte production in the fetus (capability that ceases after birth) 3) stores blood platelets
The spleen contains large numbers of what? erythrocytes
Areas of the spleen composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended onreticular fibers are called what? white pulp
The white pulp clusters or forms "cuffs" around the central arteries in the spleen and appears to be islands in a sea of what? red pulp - all remaining splenic tissue; venous sinuses and splenic cords, regions of reticular connective tissue exceptionally rich in macrophages
What is red pulp most concerned with disposing of? worn out red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens
What is white pulp concerned with? the immune functions of the spleen
What is removal of a reuptured spleen called? splenectomy
The thymus causes what cells to become immunocompetent, enabling them to function against specific pathogens in the immune response T lymphocytes
What structures in the thymus consist of concentric whorls of keratinized epithelial cells, and are sites of T cell destruction? thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles
How does the thymus differ from other lymphoid organs? (2 ways) 1) it functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation so does not directly fight antigens 2) the stroma of the thymus consists of epithelial cells not reticular fibers
What are the simplest lymphoid organs? tonsils
Which tonsils are located on either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity and are the largest and the ones most often infected? palatine tonsils
What tonsil is in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx? pharyngeal tonsil
What tonsils surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx? tubal tonsils
Tonsils at the base of the tongue are what? lingual tonsils
What function does the tonsils perform? gather and remove many of the pathogens entering the pharynx in food or inhaled air
What are large isolated clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similar to the tonsils, and are located in teh wall of the distal portion of the small intestine? Peyer's patches
Which follicles are heavily concentrated in the wall of the appendix? lymphoid follicles
What are part of the collection of small lymphoid tissues referred to as mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)? Peyer's patches, the appendix, and the tonsils
Where are the MALT tissues located? in the digestive tract
What does MALT protect passages from? the never-ending onslaughts of foreign matter entering them
By what week of embryonic development, does the beginnings of the lymphatic vessels and the main clusters of lymph node become apparent? 5th
Where do the lymph node arise from in embryos? from the budding of lymph sacs from developing veins
How can pathogens and cancer cells spread thru the body? via the lymphatic stream
What are the cells in lymphoid tissues? lymphocytes (T cells or B cells); plasma cells; macrophages; dendritic cells; reticular cells
What are the principal lymphoid organs? lymph nodes
Each lymph node consists of what 3 things? fibrous capsule; cortex and a medulla
Lymphocytes arise from what tissue? hematopoietic tissue
What regions are drained by the right lymphatic duct? right arm, right side of head, and right side of upper body
What regions are drained by the thoracic duct? the left side of head, left side of upper body and entire lower body
What are lymphatic capillaries called in the intestinal mucosa? lacteals
How does chyle differ from lymph? chyle is a milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats and the composition of lymph is clear, watery fluid that contains protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea,
Why should a badly infected part of the body be immobilized? So as not to spread the infection via lymph transport
What other forces assist with lymphatic return? skeletal muscle contraction, contractions of the lymphatic vessels
Where does the thoracic duct empty into? the left subclavian vein
Where does the right lymphatic duct empty into? the right subclavian vein
What comprises lymphatic tissues? nodules and lymphatic organs
What are inflamed pharyngeal tonsils, located in the nasopharynx called? adenoids
What are the most common tonsils located at the posterolateral aspect of the oral cavity called? palatine tonsils
Which tonsils are found on the root of the tongue? lingual tonsils
Created by: svking01 on 2009-09-28



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