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DSST World Religions

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Abraham   founder of Judaism, had a promise with God  
Angel   In the Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions, an invisible servant of God.  
Anti   Semitism  
Apocalypse   In Judaism and Christianity, the dramatic end of the present age.  
Ark of the Covenant   In Judaism, the shrine containing God’s commandments to Moses  
Ashkenazim   Jews who lived in Europe, especially Eastern Europe  
Bar Mitzvah   The coming-of-age ceremony for a Jewish boy.  
Bat Mitzvah   The coming-of-age ceremony for a Jewish girl in some modern congregations.  
Berith   "Covenant" Agreement or contract with God.  
Chanukah (Hanukkah)   Jewish festival that celebrates the rededicating of the Temply by Judas Maccabaeus in 165 BC  
Covenant   a binding agreement between god and the Israelites  
Deborah   a judge who won honor and respect  
Diaspora   Scattering of the Jewish people from their homeland which began with the Assyrian destruction of Israel in 721 BC.  
Essenes   Monastic Jews who were living communally, apart from the world, about the time of Jesus.  
Gemara   Commentary on the Mishnah compiled from the rabbinic academies of Palestine and Babylon.  
Gentile   Any person who is not of Jewish faith or origin  
Geonim   In Judaism, the administrators of the two great rabbinic academies in medieval Babylon.  
Ghetto   An urban area occupied by those rejected by a society, such as quarters for Jews in some European cities.  
Haggadah   Literally, “narrative”; history, folklore, and sermons in the Talmud  
Halakha   Jewish legal decisions and the parts of the Talmud dealing with laws  
Hasidism   Ecstatic Jewish piety, dating from 18th century Poland  
Hasidism   Ecstatic Jewish piety, dating from eighteenth-century Poland  
Holocaust   The genocidal killing of six million Jews by the Nazis during World War II  
Kabbalah (cabala)   The Jewish mystical tradition  
Karaites   Medieval Jewish group that denied the authority of the Talmud and tried to live exclusively by the rules of the Hebrew Bible  
Kosher   That which is ritually clean or acceptable in Judaism; usually applied to food or food preparation  
Liturgy   In Christianity and Judaism, the rites of public worship  
Messiah   The "anointed," the expected king and deliverer of the Jews; a term later applied by Christians to Jesus  
Midrash   The literature of delving into the Torah  
Mikva   A deep bath for ritual cleansing in Judaism  
Minyan   The quorum of ten adult males required for Jewish communal worship  
Mishnah   Hebrew summary of the oral law arranged by topic, inherited from Pharisaism but attributed to Moses. Authority parallels the written Torah  
Mitzvah   In Judaism, a divine commandment or sacred deed in fulfillment of a commandment.  
Orthodox   Adhering to the established tradition of a religion  
Passover   The Spring festival that commemorates the exodus of the Jews from Egypt  
Pentateuch   The five books of Moses at the beginning of the Hebrew Bible  
Pharisees   Most popular Jewish sect representing the middle class. Interpreted scripture broadly but still legalistic.  
Pogrom   An attack against Jews  
Purim   Jewish holiday that celebrates the deliverance of the Jews from destruction at the hands of the Persians  
Rabbi   Historically, a Jewish teacher; at present, the ordained spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation  
Rosh Hashanah   The Jewish New Year  
Sabbath   Day of rest held on Saturday. A day for prayer and public assembly.  
Sadducees   Jewish aristocracy and priestly party that embraced Hellenization, read laws literally, and denied life after death.  
Seder   Ceremonial Jewish meal in remembrance of the Passover  
Sephardim   Jews who fled from Spain and Portugal and took refuge in the Ottoman Empire  
Shavuot   “Feast of Weeks”; Jewish holiday in remembrance of the giving of the Ten Commandments  
Shekhinah   God’s presence in the world, in Judaism  
Shema   Deuteronomy 6:4, “Hear O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might.”  
Sheol   An underground pit or place of weakness and estrangement from God, where one goes after death.  
Sukkot   Jewish autumn festival of thanksgiving  
Synagogue   Literally, “assembly”; the meeting of Jews for study and prayer  
T’fillin   A small leather box with verses about God's covenant with the Jewish people, bound to the forehead and arm  
Talmud   Jewish law and lore, as finally compiled in the sixth century CE  
Tanakh   The Jewish scriptures  
Torah   Specifically the first five books of the Bible but also used generally to denote the entire Hebrew Bible or religious law.  
Tzaddik   An enlightened Jewish mystic  
Yarmulke   Skull cap worn by Jewish males at worship  
YHWH (Yahweh)   The God who revealed himself to Moses and became the God of the Israelites  
Yiddish   The language of Askhenazi Jews. Essentially, it is Middle High German written in the Hebrew alphabet  
Yom Kippur   The most solemn day of the Jewish calendar also known as the Day of Atonement  
Zealots   Jewish political revolutionaries who rejected Roman authority sometimes forcefully.  
Zionism   Movement founded in the late 19th century by Herzl which sought to find a national home for the Jews scattered throughout the world  


   




 
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