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A&P 2 - Exam 3 - Part 4 - Respiratory Physiology

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Breathing is also known as ________.   pulmonary ventilation  
_________ moves air into the lungs.   inspiration  
_________ moves air out of the lungs.   expiration  
The pulmonary ventilation mechanism must establish two ____________ gradients.   gas pressure  
The pressure within the alveoli of the lungs must be lower than atmospheric pressure to produce ___________.   inspiration  
The pressure within the alveoli of the lungs must be higher than atmospheric pressure to produce ___________.   expiration  
Pressure gradients are established by changes in the size of the thoracic cavity that are produced by ________ and ________ of muscles.   contraction, relaxation  
________ states that the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure at a constant temperature.   Boyle's law  
Expansion of the thorax results in ________ intrapleural pressure, leading to a ________ alveolar pressure causing air to move into the lungs.   decreased, decreased  
Contraction of the diaphragm produces __________, as it contracts, it makes the thoracic cavity _________.   inspiration, larger  
_______ is the ability of pulmonary tissues to stretch, making inspiration possible.   compliance  
_________ is a passive process that begins when the inspiratory muscles are relaxed.   expiration  
During expiration the inspiratory muscles are relaxed, decreasing the size of the _______ and increasing _______ pressure from about -6 mm Hg to a preinspiration level of -4 mm Hg.   thorax, intrapleural  
During expiration the inspiratory muscles are relaxed, decreasing the size of the thorax and increasing intrapleural pressure from about ______ to a preinspiration level of ______.   -6 mm Hg, -4 mm Hg  
The pressure between parietal and visceral pleura is always ______ than atmospheric pressure.   less  
________ is the tendency of pulmonary tissues to return to a smaller size after having been stretched, passively during expiration.   elastic recoil  
The amount of air moved in and out and remaining (_________) is important in order that a normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide can take place.   pulmonary volumes  
________ is an instrument used to measure volume of air.   spirometer  
________ is the amount of air exhaled after normal inspiration.   tidal volume (TV)  
________ is the largest volume of additional air that can be forcibly exhaled.   expiratory reserve volume (ERV)  
______ is a normal ERV.   1.2 liters  
______ is the amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after normal inspiration.   inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)  
______ is a normal IRV.   3.3 liters  
______ is the amount of air that cannot be forcibly exhaled.   residual volume (RV)  
______ is a normal RV.   1.2 liters  
A ___________ is the sum of two or more pulmonary volumes.   pulmonary capacity  
_________ is the sum of IRV + TV + ERV.   vital capacity  
______ is the amount of air remaining after a lung collapses and most of RV is gone.   minimal volume  
A person's vital capacity depends on many factors, including the size of the ________ and ________.   thoracic cavity, posture  
________ is the amount of air left in lungs at the end of a normal expiration.   functional residual capacity  
_________ is the sum of all four major lung volumes (IRV + ERV + TV + RV)   total lung capacity  
________ is the total amount of air a lung can hold.   total lung capacity  
________ is the volume of inspired air that reaches the alveoli.   alveolar ventilation  
_________ is the air in passageways that do not participate in gas exchange.   anatomical dead space  
Alveoli must be properly ________ for adequate gas exchange.   ventilated  
________ pressure of gases is the pressure exerted by any one gas in a mixture of gases or a liquid.   partial  
_______ is the law which relates to partial pressures.   Dalton's law  
Dalton's law states that the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases is __________ related to the concentration of that gas in the mixture and to the ___________ of the mixture.   directly, total pressure  
Arterial blood Po2 and Pco2 __________ alveolar Po2 and Pco2.   equal  
The exchange of gases in the lungs takes place between alveolar ____ and ______ flowing through lung capillaries.   air, blood  
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: The oxygen _________ between alveolar air and blood.   pressure gradient  
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: The total functional _______ of the respiratory membrane.   surface area  
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: The respiratory ______ volume.   minute  
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: Alveolar __________   ventilation  
The walls of the alveoli and capillaries form only a very _____ barrier for gases to cross.   thin  
Alveolar and capillary ______ are large.   surfaces  
Blood is distributed through the capillaries in a thin layer so each red blood cell comes ___________ to alveolar air.   close  
________ and _______ are transported as solutes and as parts of molecules of certain chemical compounds.   oxygen, carbon dioxide  
Hemoglobin is made up of four polypeptide chains (two _____ chains, two _____ chains), each with an iron-containing ______ group.   alpha, beta, heme  
Carbon dioxide can bind to ________ in the chains and oxygen can bind to _______ in the heme groups of hemoglobin.   amino acids, iron  
Oxygenated blood contains about ______ ml of dissolved O2 per 100 ml of blood.   0.3  
Hemoglobin increases the ________ carrying capacity of blood.   oxygen  
Oxygen travels in two forms: as ________ O2 in plasma and associated with hemoglobin as _________.   dissolved, oxyhemoglobin  
__________ blood Po2 accelerates hemoglobin association with oxygen.   increasing  
Oxyhemoglobin carries the _______ of the total oxygen transported by blood.   majority  
A small amount of CO2 dissolves in plasma and is transported as a solute, what percentage?   10%  
Less than one fourth of blood carbon dioxide combines with NH2 (amine) groups of hemoglobin and other proteins to form ______________.   carbaminohemoglobin  
What percentage of blood carbon dioxide combines with NH2 (amine) groups of hemoglobin and other proteins to form carbaminohemoglobin?   20%  
Carbon dioxide association with hemoglobin is accelerated by an _____________ in blood Pco2.   increase  
More than two thirds of carbon dioxide is carried in plasma as ___________.   bicarbonate ions  
What percentage of carbon dioxide is carried in plasma as bicarbonate ions?   70%  
The exchange of gases in tissues takes place between arterial blood flowing through tissue ______ and ______.   capillaries, cells  
Oxygen diffuses out of arterial blood because the ______ favors its outward diffusion.   oxygen pressure gradient  
As dissolved oxygen diffuses out of arterial blood, blood Po2 _______, which ________ oxyhemoglobin dissociation to release more oxygen to plasma for diffusion to cells.   decreases, accelerates  
Carbon dioxide exchange between tissues and blood takes place in the ______ direction from oxygen exchange.   opposite  
The _______ states that increased Pco2 _______ the affinity between oxygen and hemoglobin.   Bohr effect, decreases  
The _______ states that increased carbon dioxide loading is caused by a _________ in Po2.   Haldane effect, decrease  
________ are the main integrators that control the nerves that affect the inspiratory and expiratory muscles.   respiratory control centers  
Respiratory control centers are located in the _______.   brainstem  
The ______ generates the basic rhythm of the respiratory cycle.   medullary rhythmicity center  
The ______ consists of two interconnected control centers.   medullary rhythmicity center  
The inspiratory center of the medullary rhythmicity center stimulates _________.   inspiration  
The expiratory center of the medullary rhythmicity center stimulates ___________.   expiration  
The basic breathing rhythm can be altered by different inputs to the _______.   medullary rhythmicity center  
Input from the ________ center in the pons stimulates the inspiratory center to ________ the length and depth of inspiration.   apneustic, increase  
The apneustic and pneumotaxic centers are located in the ________.   pons  
The _______ center,in the pons,________ the apneustic center and inspiratory center to prevent _________ of the lungs.   pneumotaxic, inhibits, over inflation  
________ from the nervous system provide feedback to the medullary rhythmicity center.   sensors  
Changes in the ______, ______, and ______ of arterial blood influence the medullary rhythmicity area.   Po2, Pco2, pH  
PCO2 acts on _________ in the medulla - if it increases, the result is _______ breathing; if it decreases, the result is _______ breathing   chemoreceptors, faster, slower  
A decrease in blood pH stimulates chemoreceptors in the ______ and ______ bodies.   carotid, aortic  
Arterial blood ________ presumably has little influence if it stays above a certain level.   Po2  
Arterial blood pressure controls breathing through the _______ mechanism.   respiratory pressoreflex  
_________ reflexes help control respirations by regulating depth of respirations and the volume of tidal air.   Hering-Breuer  
The _______ influences breathing by increasing or decreasing the rate and strength of respirations.   cerebral cortex  
The internal system must continually get new _______ and rid itself of _________.   oxygen, carbon dioxide  
Blood gases need ______ and the _______ system to be transported between gas exchange tissues of the lungs and various systemic tissues of the body.   blood, cardiovascular  
Regulation by the _________ system adjusts ventilation to compensate for changes in oxygen or carbon dioxide in the internal environment.   nervous  
The ________ of the thorax aid the airways in maintaining the flow of fresh air.   skeletal muscles  
The skeleton houses the ______, and the arrangement of bones facilitates the expansion and recoil of the thorax.   lungs  
The ________ system prevents pathogens from colonizing the respiratory tract and causing infection.   immune  
Scarring due to exposure to contaminants is known as ________.   alveolar fibrosis  
What is an autoimmune disorder that can lead to the build up of fluid in the lungs?   rheumatoid lung  
What does COPD stand for?   chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  
What is the production of excessive secretions that obstruct airflow?   bronchitis  
What is the enlargement of air spaces due to the damage of lung connective tissue (gas exchange units are destroyed)?   emphysema  
What are recurring spasms of the smooth muscles in the walls of the bronchial air passages?   asthma  


   





 
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