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First half of Astronomy 109 @ Rutgers University

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How does science work, in steps?   1. Observation of nature 2. Detection of patterns or regularities 3. Induction of underlying laws of nature 4. Deductive prediction of new phenomena 5. Experimental test of predictions 6. Generalization and reduction  
What is a paradigm?   The "ground rules" under which scientists in a field or sub-field agree to operate and which form the basis for discriminating "science" from "non-science"  
What elements were made in the big bang?   Hydrogen and Helium, the rest were made in stars  
Inductive reasoning yields certain or uncertain conclusions?   completely certain conclusions given accurate premises  
Deductive reasoning yields certain or uncertain conclusions?   uncertain conclusions  
What is a theory?   Statements made with no evidence to support them  
What is the celestial sphere?   The apparent dome of the sky  
Zenith is?   The overhead point  
Meridian is?   The circle from north through zenith to south  
Where is the sun at Noon?   On the meridian  
Celestial equator is?   The equator  
Right ascension is?   (longitude) angle along celestial equator  
Declination is?   (latitude) angle north or south of the equator towards celestial pole  
Azimuth is?   The angle from north through east along the horizon  
Altitude is?   angle up from horizon toward zenith  
Azimuth and Altitude coordinates are local and change with time, what doesn't?   Right ascension and declination  
For an observer in New Brunswick, NJ, what range of azimuth would include all the locations on the horizon at which stars can rise?   0 degrees to 180 degrees  
If it is summer in the north, what seaon is it in the south?   Summer  
What season is the sun the highest and thus has the longest days?   Summer  
Diurnal means?   Motion for East to west, 24 hours  
Circumpolar stars are?   Stars that never set  
A solar day is?   Noon to noon  
A Sidereal day is?   Stellar transit to next transit  
Solar days are longer than sidereal days by how long?   4 minutes  
The sun moves Annually from N-S and W to E along..?   Ecliptic  
The moons motion is?   Diurnal, monthly from W to E  
The sailor moon crescent moon is actually called?   Waxing Crescent if the white part is on the left, Waning Crescent if it is on the right  
The "First Quarter" position of the moon is actually when the white part is?   A half moon, the white part being on the right. The last quarter has the white part on the left.  
What is the difference between a full moon and a new moon?   The full moon is fully illuminated, the new moon is all dark.  
3/4 moon phases are called?   Waxing and Waning Gibbous  
During an eclipse, the umbra is..?   The darkest shadow cast by the planet on another planet, in the middle between the lighter penumbra shadows  
The penumbra is..?   the lighter shadow cast during an eclipse onto another planet. It surrounds the umbra, the darkest shadow.  
A lunar eclipse involves?   The earths shadow falling on the moon  
A solar eclipse involves?   The moons shadow falls on the earth  
A Saros cycle is?   The 18 year 11 month period of eclipse cycles  
Planets motion is?   Diurnal, generally west to east. Sometimes retrograde E to W. planets are defined by their retrograde motion.  
Pythagoras' birth date and theories:   530-450 BC, believed in Number, Harmony, Order, and Geometry  
Philolaus' birth date and theories:   (5th century BC) All plantets revolve around a "Central fire" including moon. Stars are in fixed locations, and there are 10 circles revolving around sun, including a "Counter earth" that shields us from the sun.  
Herakleides' birth date and theories:   (375-310 BC) Mercury and venus orbit sun, explains retrograde motion and positions of mercury and venus. sun and other other planets orbit earth  
Aristarchus' birth date and theories:   (310-230 BC) Fully heliocentric model, explains retrograde motion naturally. all planets revolve around sun, moon revolves around earth. Allows for calculation of size and distance fo the sun and moon. Not accepted because earth doesnt seem to move.  
Plato' birth date and theories:   (428-348 BC) Theory has a "real" world of perfection vs our "visible" world of perception. Hard for his theories to be disproved by evidence bc his theories cannot be proven wrong.  
Eudoxus' birth date and theories:   (~370 BC) Made a model of spheres within spheres, 3 spheres per planet, plus sun, moon. 27 spheres total. only crudely represented retrograde motion  
Aristotle's birth date and theories:   (384-322) Held Platos ideas as absolute fact. Theory involved 4 elements: earth, water, air, fire. "natural" places: earth lowest, fire highest. motion arises when objects are displaced from natural place. Argued against heliocentric theory.  
Hipparchus' birth date and theories:   (160-125 BC)Catalogued 850 star positions and brightness. Invented modern magnitude system. Deferent - basic circular orbit. Epicycle - Smaller orbit on deferent. Eccentric - Displacement of earth from center of deferent.  
Eratosthenes' birth date and theories:   (~200 BC) Made the first very accurate measurement of the earths size. "Father of geography". Calculated circumfrence of earth  
Ptolemy's birth date and theories:   (~150 AD) Used Hippachus' general ideas. Introduced the equant, a point opposite of the eccentric, at thesame distance from the center. Planet's epicycle moves on the deferent at a variable speed, the speed appears constant as seen from the equant.  
The Ptolemaic System   Used 40 circles in total, set the size of the universe: 20,000 R = 1 AU. Dominated for 1400 years, the most successful scientific theory ever. Accurate predictions  
Hypatia's birth date and contributions:   First known female astronomer, wrote commentary on Ptolemy. Developed astronomical navigation devices. Murdered during mob riot  
Copernicus (1273-1543)   First astronomer of modern times. Model had circular orbits and uniform circular motion, added small epicycles to account for variability. Provided natural explanation for retrograde motion.  


   




 
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